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Wang K.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Wang K.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Bao L.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Xiong W.,Tibet Academy of Agriculture and Animal science | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2015

(Chemical Equqation Presented). Sixteen new lanostane triterpenes, ganoleucoins A-P (1-16), together with 10 known tripterpenes (17-26), were isolated from the cultivated fruiting bodies of Ganoderma leucocontextum, a new member of the Ganoderma lucidum complex. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformation. The inhibitory effects of 1-26 on HMG-CoA reductase and α-glucosidase were tested in vitro. Compounds 1, 3, 6, 10-14, 17, 18, 23, 25, and 26 showed much stronger inhibitory activity against HMG-CoA reductase than the positive control atorvastatin. Compounds 13, 14, and 16 presented potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase from yeast with IC50 values of 13.6, 2.5, and 5.9 μM, respectively. In addition, the cytotoxicity of 1-26 was evaluated against the K562 and PC-3 cell lines by the MTT assay. Compounds 1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 12, 16, 18, and 25 exhibited cytotoxicity against K562 cells with IC50 values in the range 10-20 μM. Paclitaxel was used as the positive control with an IC50 value of 0.9 μM. This is the first report of secondary metabolites from this medicinal mushroom. © 2015 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy. Source


Liu J.B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yue Y.J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lang X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2014

This study investigated geographic and pairwise distances among seven Chinese local and four introduced sheep populations via analysis of 26 microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic polymorphism was rich, and the following was discovered: 348 alleles in total were detected, the average allele number was 13.38, the polymorphism information content (PIC) of loci ranged from 0.717 to 0.788, the number of effective alleles ranged from 7.046 to 7.489, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.700 to 0.768 for the practical sample, and from 0.712 to 0.794 for expected heterozygosity. The Wright's F-statistic of subpopulations within the total (FST) was 0.128, the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) was 0.115, and the average gene flow (Nm) was 1.703. The phylogenetic trees based on the neighbor-joining method by Nei's genetic distance (DA) and Nei's standard genetic distance (DS) were similar. Sheep populations clustered into group 1 (Ta, M, L, H, O, G, and Q breeds) and group 2 (PD, WS, B, and T breeds). These results will have an important value applied and directive significance for sheep breeding in the future. © FUNPEC-RP. Source


Waldron S.,University of Queensland | Pubuzhuoma,Tibetan Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry science | Brown C.,University of Queensland | Wujincuomu,Tibetan Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry science | Jin T.,Tibet Academy of Agriculture and Animal science
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly | Year: 2016

With small land sizes, precarious food balances, and a changing institutional landscape, farmers in Central Tibet have had to be resilient and adaptive in their livelihood strategies. Rural Tibetans retain a base in semi-subsistence agriculture from which to pursue other major opportunities that have arisen in the 2000s, including off-farm work and caterpillar fungus collection. As reported in this paper, farmers have been given a further boost in recent years through buoyant food markets, and after decades of neglect, increased policy attention to agriculture. This has increased household, wealth and reduced vulnerability, but with very low surpluses has had a limited effect on cash income, the vast majority of which must still be sourced off-farm. Thus, semi-subsistence agriculture provides a 'pathway out of poverty' including into the non-farm sector, but the transition will not be linear and will be influenced by a complex combination of forces. The paper documents the way that these forces have played out at the household level in the case study township of Duopozhang in Shannan Prefecture between 2010 and 2015. Analysis is based on an agricultural-economicbiophysical household model populated by detailed household surveys, and contextualized and cross-verified with detailed primary and secondary data at township up to autonomous region levels. This may shed light on recent developments in agricultural areas of Central Tibet that are not easily accessible or widely reported. Source


Qiu J.,CAS Institute of Botany | Qiu J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xue X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen F.,CAS Institute of Botany | And 8 more authors.
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2010

Snow lotus is commonly used as a medicinal plant and has great pharmacological value. To protect these endangered plants, in vitro propagation and cell cultures have been established in order to meet the growing market demand. The phenolic composition, antioxidant activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) from three most commonly used species, in vitro propagated lines and the cell cultures were investigated to qualify their pharmacological value. Quantitative analysis showed that the phenolics varied greatly among different species and the same species at different habitats. From this it can be inferred that the phenolics were influenced by genetic background and the environmental conditions. Significant correlations were observed between the antioxidant activity and several phenolics/TPC/TFC, suggesting that the phenolics are a major contributor of the antioxidant activity and are important for quality evaluation of snow lotus. Based on the abundance of phenolics, TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, the order of the quality for wild species would be Saussurea involucrata > Saussurea medusa > Saussurea gossypiphora. For S. medusa, its quality judged by origin would be Shigatse > Lhasa > Nagqu. For in vitro propagated plants, the matured plants could be a reliable substitute for wild plants, and the dynamics of phenolics is critical for quality control of this monocarpic species. We provide the first report of quality comparison between the wild plants and the cell cultures. The advantages of developing cell cultures as alternatives for plants collected from the wild are discussed. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Waldron S.,University of Queensland | Pubuzhuoma,Tibetan Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry science | Brown C.,University of Queensland | Wujincuomu,Tibetan Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry science | And 2 more authors.
Himalaya | Year: 2015

With small land sizes, precarious food balances, and a changing institutional landscape, farmers in Central Tibet have had to be resilient and adaptive in their livelihood strategies. Rural Tibetans retain a base in semi-subsistence agriculture from which to pursue other major opportunities that have arisen in the 2000s, including off-farm work and caterpillar fungus collection. As reported in this paper, farmers have been given a further boost in recent years through buoyant food markets, and after decades of neglect, increased policy attention to agriculture. This has increased household wealth and reduced vulnerability, but with very low surpluses has had a limited effect on cash income, the vast majority of which must still be sourced off-farm. Thus, semi-subsistence agriculture provides a 'pathway out of poverty' including into the non-farm sector, but the transition will not be linear and will be influenced by a complex combination of forces. The paper documents the way that these forces have played out at the household level in the case study township of Duopozhang in Shannan Prefecture between 2010 and 2015. Analysis is based on an agricultural-economicbiophysical household model populated by detailed household surveys, and contextualized and cross-verified with detailed primary and secondary data at township up to autonomous region levels. This may shed light on recent developments in agricultural areas of Central Tibet that are not easily accessible or widely reported. Source

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