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PubMed | University of Hong Kong, Tianyuan Bio-Pharmaceutical, University of Texas at Dallas and Zhejiang University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Developing a safe and effective H7N9 influenza vaccine was initiated in early spring 2013, following human infections with a novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. In this study, a candidate H7N9 vaccine seed strain is produced using reverse genetics, with HA and NA derived from a human H7N9 virus and the remaining genes from the PR8 backbone virus which grows well in eggs. We verified that the virulence and transmissibility of the recombinant H7N9 vaccine seed strain were decreased as compared to wild-type H7N9 virus, to levels comparable with PR8. Using the seed virus, we produced a monovalent split influenza A (H7N9) MF59-adjuvanted vaccine that was immunogenic in mice. Our H7N9 vaccine is selected for clinical investigation and potential human use. To assess the safety of our H7N9 vaccine, we performed acute toxicity, repeated dose toxicity and active systemic anaphylaxis tests. Our results showed that, under the conditions used in this study, the NOEAL (no obvious adverse effect level) was 30 g/0.5 mL.


Liang X.-F.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Wang H.-Q.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Wang J.-Z.,National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceuticals and Biological Products | Fang H.-H.,National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceuticals and Biological Products | And 19 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2010

Background: The current influenza pandemic calls for a safe and effective vaccine. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of eight formulations of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 vaccine produced by ten Chinese manufacturers. Methods: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial, 12 691 people aged 3 years or older were recruited in ten centres in China. In each centre, participants were stratified by age and randomly assigned by a random number table to receive one of several vaccine formulations or placebo. The study assessed eight formulations: split-virion formulation containing 7·5 μg, 15 μg, or 30 μg haemagglutinin per dose, with or without aluminium hydroxide adjuvant, and whole-virion formulation containing 5 μg or 10 μg haemagglutinin per dose, with adjuvant. All formulations were produced from the reassortant strain X-179A (A/California/07/2009-A/PR/8/34). We analysed the safety (adverse events), immunogenicity (geometric mean titre [GMT] of haemagglutination inhibition antibody), and seroprotection (GMT ≥1:40) of the formulations. Analysis was by per protocol. Two sites registered their trial with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00956111 and NCT00975572. The other eight studies were registered with the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Findings: 12 691 participants received the first dose on day 0, and 12 348 participants received the second dose on day 21. The seroprotection rate 21 days after the first dose of vaccine ranged from 69·5% (95% CI 65·9-72·8) for the 7·5 μg adjuvant split-virion formulation to 92·8% (91·9-93·6) for the 30 μg non-adjuvant split-virion formulation. The seroprotection rate was 86·5% (796 of 920; 84·1-88·7) in recipients of one dose of the 7·5 μg non-adjuvant split-virion vaccine compared with 9·8% (140 of 1432; 8·3-11·4) in recipients of placebo (p<0·0001). One dose of the 7·5 μg non-adjuvant split-virion vaccine induced seroprotection in 178 of 232 children (aged 3 years to <12 years; 76·7%, 70·7-82·0), 211 of 218 adolescents (12 years to <18 years; 96·8%, 93·5-98·7), 289 of 323 adults (18-60 years; 89·5%, 85·6-92·6), and 118 of 147 adults older than 60 years (80·3%, 72·9-86·4), meeting the European Union's licensure criteria for seroprotection in all age-groups. In children, a second dose of the 7·5 μg formulation increased the seroprotection rate to 97·7% (215 of 220, 94·8-99·3). Adverse reactions were mostly mild or moderate, and self-limited. Severe adverse effects occurred in 69 (0·6%, 0·5-0·8) recipients of vaccine compared with one recipient (0·1%, 0-0·2) of placebo. The most common severe adverse reaction was fever, which occurred in 25 (0·22%; 0·14-0·33) recipients of vaccine after the first dose and four (0·04%; 0·01-0·09) recipients of vaccine after the second dose compared with no recipients of placebo after either dose. Interpretation: One dose of non-adjuvant split-virion vaccine containing 7·5 μg haemagglutinin could be promoted as the formulation of choice against 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 for people aged 12 years or older. In children (aged <12 years), two 7·5 μg doses might be needed. Funding: Sinovac Biotech, Hualan Biological Bacterin, China National Biotec Group, Beijing Tiantan Biological Products, Changchun Institute of Biological Products, Changchun Changsheng Life Sciences, Jiangsu Yanshen Biological Technology Stock, Zhejiang Tianyuan Bio-Pharmaceutical, Lanzhou Institute of Biological Products, Shanghai Institute of Biological Products, and Dalian Aleph Biomedical. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhu H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ding X.,Tianyuan Bio-Pharmaceutical | Chen X.,Tianyuan Bio-Pharmaceutical | Yao P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 12 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

In order to develop an animal model and an assay method to evaluate protective immune response to H5N1 avian influenza vaccination, H5N1 avian influenza vaccine was prepared. New Zealand rabbits were assigned to receive two doses of vaccine with different hemagglutinin (HA) dosage. The sera from vaccinated rabbits was evaluated to determine antibody titer and specificity using different tested methods including hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI), neutralizing assay (NT), cross-HI assay, cross-single immunodiffusion assay and cross-neutralization assay. The titer of HI antibody from rabbits immunized with different doses of HA were no less than 1:40 among groups 14 days after the first immunization. Whereas the NT antibody titer was less than 1:10 among groups 14 days after the first immunization. NT antibodies can be detected 14 days after the second immunization in rabbits immunized at HA doses higher than 6 μg, and the NT antibody titers were equal to or higher than 1:40. A good concentration-dependent NT antibody response can be detected in the vaccinated rabbits 14 days after the second immunization, and in contrast, no concentration-dependent relationship can be seen for HA antibody. The cross-HI test showed sera from vaccinated rabbits could cross react with influenza A H5N1 virus with the titers higher than 1:40. No cross reaction among different types (influenza A/H1N1 virus, influenza A/H3N2 virus, influenza B virus and influenza A/H5N1 virus) can be detected in the sera using the single immunodiffusion assay and using NT antibody test. This showed NT antibody test was demonstrated as a more accurate assay method for evaluating vaccination and quality of the vaccine than HI antibody test. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ou H.,Zhejiang University | Yao H.,Zhejiang University | Yao W.,Tianyuan Bio-Pharmaceutical | Wu N.,Zhejiang University | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2016

The H7N9 influenza virus caused significant mortality and morbidity in humans during an outbreak in China in 2013. A recombinant H7N9 influenza seed with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from A/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013(H7N9) and six internal protein gene segments from A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1; PR8) were generated using reverse genetics. We sought to determine the immunogenic, protective properties, and mechanisms of a split avian influenza A/H7N9 vaccine mixed with MF59 adjuvant in comparison to vaccines that included other adjuvant. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with two doses of different amounts and combinations of this novel A/ZJU01/PR8/2013 split vaccine with adjuvant. Mice were subsequently challenged with A/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013(H7N9) by intranasal inoculation. We verified that MF59 enhanced the HI, MN, and IgG antibody titers to influenza antigens. Compared with alum, MF59 could more potentially induce humoral immune responses and Th2 cytokine production after virus infection, while both MF59 and alum can slightly increase NK cell activity. This split H7N9 influenza vaccine with MF59 adjuvant could effectively induce antibody production and protect mice from H7N9 virus challenge. We have selected this vaccine for manufacture and future clinical studies to protect humans from H7N9 virus infection. © 2016.


PubMed | University of Hong Kong, Tianyuan Bio-Pharmaceutical and Zhejiang University
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2016

The H7N9 influenza virus caused significant mortality and morbidity in humans during an outbreak in China in 2013. A recombinant H7N9 influenza seed with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from A/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013(H7N9) and six internal protein gene segments from A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1; PR8) were generated using reverse genetics. We sought to determine the immunogenic, protective properties, and mechanisms of a split avian influenza A/H7N9 vaccine mixed with MF59 adjuvant in comparison to vaccines that included other adjuvant. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with two doses of different amounts and combinations of this novel A/ZJU01/PR8/2013 split vaccine with adjuvant. Mice were subsequently challenged with A/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013(H7N9) by intranasal inoculation. We verified that MF59 enhanced the HI, MN, and IgG antibody titers to influenza antigens. Compared with alum, MF59 could more potentially induce humoral immune responses and Th2 cytokine production after virus infection, while both MF59 and alum can slightly increase NK cell activity. This split H7N9 influenza vaccine with MF59 adjuvant could effectively induce antibody production and protect mice from H7N9 virus challenge. We have selected this vaccine for manufacture and future clinical studies to protect humans from H7N9 virus infection.

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