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Xu Z.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute | Zou Z.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute | Cao B.-H.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute
Beijing Gongye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing University of Technology | Year: 2013

The evaluations of carbon emissions of transportation modes were conducted from life cycle perspective. Carbon emissions measurement standard was defined and the passenger car mode was taken as an example to demonstrate the steps of life cycle assessment, namely the determination of system boundary, the emission list and the buildup of model. Carbon emission of passenger car mode was evaluated and the carbon emission evolution was also conducted. Carbon emissions of every mode of transportation were calculated including the bicycle, E-bike, bus, metro, taxi and car. The methods to low-carbon transport developments were introduced and the quantitative studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of administrative and charging policies on Green House Gases (GHGs) emissions based on the questionnaire survey combined with multinomial logit (MNL) model.

Yue H.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Zhang B.-Y.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Shao C.-F.,Beijing Jiaotong University | Xing Y.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute
Chinese Physics B | Year: 2014

A mixed strategy of the exit selection in a pedestrian evacuation simulation with multi-exits is constructed by fusing the distance-based and time-based strategies through a cognitive coefficient, in order to reduce the evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of exits or pedestrian layout, to find a critical density to distinguish whether the strategy of exit selection takes effect or not, and to analyze the exit selection results with different cognitive coefficients. The strategy of exit selection is embedded in the computation of the shortest estimated distance in a dynamic parameter model, in which the concept of a jam area layer and the procedure of step-by-step expending are introduced. Simulation results indicate the characteristics of evacuation time gradually varying against cognitive coefficient and the effectiveness of reducing evacuation imbalance caused by the asymmetry of pedestrian or exit layout. It is found that there is a critical density to distinguish whether a pedestrian jam occurs in the evacuation and whether an exit selection strategy is in effect. It is also shown that the strategy of exit selection has no effect on the evacuation process in the no-effect phase with a low density, and that evacuation time and exit selection are dependent on the cognitive coefficient and pedestrian initial density in the in-effect phase with a high density. © 2014 Chinese Physical Society and IOP Publishing Ltd.

Qin Y.,Tianjin University | Qin Y.,Johns Hopkins University | Chen Z.,Tianjin University | Han N.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute
International Journal of Steel Structures | Year: 2014

The through-diaphragm connection detail has been identified as a good choice for attaching HSS beams to concrete-filled rectangular tube columns in engineering applications. In this research program an analytical study was conducted to comprehend the behavior of this detail and develop the accompanying design guidelines. The experimental results are presented elsewhere. In this paper two analytical models were established to predict the shear stiffness and yield shear strength of the HSS beam and panel zone, respectively. Theoretical results based on the proposed model well agreed with the experimental data. Finally, design provisions were introduced to check the strength in the connections. © 2014, Korean Society of Steel Construction and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Li C.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute | Li C.,Tianjin University | Li X.L.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction | Ji M.,Tianjin University | Liu J.,Tianjin University
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) is a modification of conventional activated sludge processes used for wastewater treatment consisting of biofilm attachment surfaces added to suspended-growth reactors, thereby creating hybrid suspended attached-growth systems. In this work, an IFAS system, with a total working volume of 560.7 L, was employed to investigate the performance of pollutants removal in industrial effluent. Microbial communities of suspended-growth and attached-growth biomass were investigated by a combination of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the system, suspended-growth and attached-growth biomass worked together to maintain a stable COD, NH4 +-N and TN removal efficiency of 74, 93 and 76%, respectively. PCR-DGGE results showed that Proteobacteria was the dominant genera of bacteria in both the suspended and attached growth sludge. Some of the bacterial species (Firmicutes and Pseudomonas) may play an important role in the organic degradation of this water. Denitrifying bacteria were found to be accumulated in the biofilms. FISH results showed that there were more nitrifying bacteria in the suspended-growth biomass than the attached-growth biomass but fewer denitrifying bacteria in the former biomass. © IWA Publishing 2012.

Zhuang B.,Tianjin University | Zhao X.,Tianjin University | Gao B.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2010: Challenges of Change - Proceedings of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2010 | Year: 2010

A well planned regional water distribution system could provide a reliable and high quality drinking water supply to the residents. A framework for optimal planning of regional water distribution systems is presented. The framework is comprised of four stages: (1) determine the scope of the regional water supply system, (2) partition to subregions and establish water supply relationship, (3) optimal connection layout of transmission mains between the subregions with water supply relationship, and (4) pipe diameter optimization of the regional water distribution system. Most work of the first two stages is left to the decision maker of municipal planning bureau and water utilities. For the last two stages, it is concentrated on setting up mathematical models and finding optimal solution for these models. Dijkstra Algorithm is used at the third stage to find the least cost for layout of transmission mains between adjacent subregions. At the fourth stage, a model for diameter optimization of regional water distribution systems was proposed with the objectives of minimal investment and operation costs and maximum entropy reliability. The model, in which diameter of the pipes need to be optimized are the decision variables, takes into account both economic and reliability issues. Linked to EPANET as the hydraulic engine, the shuffled frog-leap algorithm (SFLA) is adopted to solve the model. Finally, the proposed planning framework is applied and demonstrated on the planning of the real-life regional water distribution system in Tianjin City, north China, which serves more than 10 millions people. The Tianjin case could play an exemplary role to the other similar planning of regional water distribution systems. © 2010 ASCE.

Gao B.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute | Zhao X.-H.,Tianjin University
Proceedings - 2012 International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, iCBEB 2012 | Year: 2012

Existing conditions and problems of water resources of a new district in north China are analyzed and summarized. According to the true conditions of new district, index method is used to forecast water demands of new district in 2020. On the basis of current situations of water resources and relative plan, available water resources of new district in 2020 are forecasted. To make sustainable use of water resources, water resources optimized allocation of new district is studied and discussed, multi-objectives optimized mathematical model is set up and solved and corresponding conclusions are made. © 2012 IEEE.

Gao B.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute | Zhuang B.Y.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

How to plan and design a city's rain water drainage system reasonably to control a city's water logging arouses people's concern in China. In an urban area of North China, a simulation model of rain water drainage system based on SWMM is built. Different schemes of rain water drainage system are evaluated and optimized. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Deng Z.-D.,Tianjin University | Jiang X.-L.,Tianjin University | Han Y.,Tianjin University | Han N.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute
Gongcheng Lixue/Engineering Mechanics | Year: 2012

To study seismic behavior of new Tianjin library, a shaking table test of a 1/20 scale model is carried out for the main structure of the library. A steel frame-bracing system is employed in the main structure of the library. There are lots of removing columns and trusses with cantilevers in the interior structure with an irregular façade. Accordingly, this paper designs and products thoroughly the test model, including the selection of model material, the similitude-scaling relationship, the discussion for the model construction technology and design of test program. Finally, this paper lists the main result for the shaking table test.

Zhang X.P.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Zhao B.Y.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

The purpose of this research is to combine the sustainability evaluation system of China and put forward a sustainability assessment system based on urban residential district plan competition program. In this research, the status quo of the evaluation process was studied. As the core of the research, the establishment of URDPAS complements the assessment technology of residential district plan competition. The existing area scale sustainability assessment tools were analyzed. With the application of ANP method to determine the evaluation items and weighting system in urban residential district plan, decision-makers can use this evaluation process and assessment system to assess the residential district plans more comprehensively and rationally than using traditional methods and the selection of the best plan becomes relatively easier. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhuang B.,Tianjin Urban Planning and Design Institute | Lansey K.,University of Arizona | Kang D.,Kyung Hee University | Kang D.,University of Suwon
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering | Year: 2013

In last three decades, the reliability of water distribution systems (WDSs) has become a major concern, not only for water utilities and academic research communities, but also for society as a whole. Notable research has been conducted on the reliability/availability of WDSs, however, little attention has been paid to quantify the impact of adaptive operations as a response to system failure to enhance the resiliency of WDSs. Here, resilience is defined in the general sense as the ability to recover from a failure to a satisfactory state. In practice, if a system fails to supply water with adequate pressure, the water utility would take action to respond. Adaptive actions include switching on additional pumps as a short-term remedy or maintaining a higher water level in storage tanks as a long-term strategy to satisfy system pressure when a system experiences abnormal conditions. Here, a Monte Carlo simulation based framework for the resilience analysis of WDSs is implemented, considering the impact of adaptive pump operations and isolation valve locations. The framework consists of four steps: (1) random event generation for nodal demand fluctuations and pipe breaks; (2) identification of isolated segments based on valve layout; (3) hydraulic simulation with regular and adaptive operations; and (4) identification of responses and the evaluation of system resilience/ availability. The proposed methodology is applied to a mid-sized WDS and results show that adaptive pump operations improve system resilience with a moderate pumping cost increase. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

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