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Xu X.-J.,Peking Union Medical College | Lv F.,Peking Union Medical College | Liu Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Wang J.-Y.,Peking Union Medical College | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2017

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of hereditary disorders characterized by decreased bone mass and increased fracture risk. The majority of OI cases have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and are usually caused by mutations in genes encoding type I collagen. OI cases of autosomal recessive inheritance are rare, and OI type XI is attributable to mutation of the FKBP10 gene. Here, we used next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing to detect mutations in FKBP10 and to analyze their relation to the phenotypes of OI type XI in three Chinese patients. We also evaluated the efficacy of zoledronic acid treatment in these patients. Two of the affected patients had novel compound heterozygous mutations, one patient with c.343C>T (p.R115X) in exon 2 and c.1085delC (p.A362fsX1) in exon 7, and the other patient with c.879C>G (p.Y293X) in exon 5 and c.918-3C>G in intron 5. In the third proband, we identified a homozygous single base-pair duplication, c.831dupC (p.G278RfsX95) in exon 5. In conclusion, we report for the first time that these novel pathogenic mutations of FKBP10 can lead to the extremely rare type XI OI without contractures, which expands the genotypic spectrum of OI. The phenotypes of these patients are similar to patients with types III or IV OI, and zoledronic acid is effective in increasing BMD, inhibiting bone resorption biomarkers and reducing fractures of these patients. © 2017 The Japan Society of Human Genetics All rights reserved.


Min H.-Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Qiao P.-P.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qiao P.-P.,Binhai Genomics Institute | Qiao P.-P.,Tianjin Translational Genomics Center | And 21 more authors.
Chinese Medical Journal | Year: 2016

Background: Congenital cataract (CC) is the leading cause of visual impairment or blindness in children worldwide. Because of highly genetic and clinical heterogeneity, a molecular diagnosis of the lens disease remains a challenge. Methods: In this study, we tested a three-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant CCs by targeted sequencing of 45 CC genes on next generation sequencing and evaluated the pathogenicity of the detected mutation by protein structure, pedigree validation, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Results: A novel 15 bp deletion on GJA8 (c.426_440delGCTGGAGGGGACCCT or p. 143_147delLEGTL) was detected in the family. The deletion, concerned with an in-frame deletion of 5 amino acid residues in a highly evolutionarily conserved region within the cytoplasmic loop domain of the gap junction channel protein connexin 50 (Cx50), was in full cosegregation with the cataract phenotypes in the family but not found in 1100 control exomes. MD simulation revealed that the introduction of the deletion destabilized the Cx50 gap junction channel, indicating the deletion as a dominant-negative mutation. Conclusions: The above results support the pathogenic role of the 15 bp deletion on GJA8 in the Chinese family and demonstrate targeted genes sequencing as a resolution to molecular diagnosis of CCs. © 2016 Chinese Medical Journal.


Guan Y.,Binhai Genomics Institute | Guan Y.,Tianjin Translational Genomics Center | Hu H.,Shenzhen Peoples Hospital | Peng Y.,BGI Shenzhen | And 25 more authors.
Familial Cancer | Year: 2014

Hereditary cancers occur because of inherited gene mutations. Genetic testing has been approved to provide information for risk assessment and rationale for appropriate intervention. Testing methods currently available for clinical use have some limitations, including sensitivity and testing throughput, etc. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been rapidly evolving to increase testing sensitivity and throughput. It can be potentially used to identify inherited mutation in clinical diagnostic setting. Here we develop an effective method employing target enrichment and NGS platform to detect common as well as rare mutations for all common hereditary cancers in a single assay. Single base substitution across 115 hereditary cancer related genes using YH (the first Asian genome) was characterized to validate our method. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 93.66, 99.98 and 99.97 %, were achieved, respectively. In addition, we correctly identified 53 SNVs and indels of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in two breast cancer specimens, all confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Accuracy in detecting copy number variation (CNV) was corroborated in 4 breast cancer specimens with known CNVs in BRAC1. Application of the method to 85 clinical cases revealed 22 deleterious mutations, 11 of which were novel. In summary, our studies demonstrate that the target enrichment combined with NGS method provides the accuracy, sensitivity, and high throughput for genetic testing for patients with high risk of hereditary or familial cancer. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Wang J.-Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Liu Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Song L.-J.,Binhai Genomics Institute | Song L.-J.,Tianjin Translational Genomics Center | And 15 more authors.
Calcified Tissue International | Year: 2016

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of inherited disorders characterized by recurrent fragile fractures. Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade F, member 1 (SERPINF1) is known to cause a distinct, extremely rare autosomal recessive form of type VI OI. Here we report, for the first time, the detection of SERPINF1 mutations in Chinese OI patients. We designed a novel targeted next-generation sequencing panel of OI-related genes to identify pathogenic mutations, which were confirmed with Sanger sequencing and by co-segregation analysis. We also investigated the phenotypes of OI patients by evaluating bone mineral density, radiological fractures, serum bone turnover markers, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) concentration. Six patients with moderate-to-severe bone fragility, significantly low bone mineral density, and severe deformities of the extremities were recruited from five unrelated families for this study. Six pathogenic mutations in SERPINF1 gene were identified, five of which were novel: (1) a homozygous in-frame insertion in exon 3 (c.271_279dup, p.Ala91_Ser93dup); (2) compound heterozygous mutations in intron 3 (c.283 + 1G > T, splicing site) and exon 5 (c.498_499delCA, p.Arg167SerfsX35, frameshift); (3) a homozygous frameshift mutation in exon 8 (c.1202_1203delCA, p.Thr401ArgfsX); (4) compound heterozygous missense mutation (c.184G > A, p.Gly62Ser) and in-frame insertion (c.271_279dup, p.Ala91_Ser93dup) in exon 3; and (5) a heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 4 (c.397C>T + ?, p.Gln133X + ?). Serum PEDF levels were barely detectable in almost all subjects. We identified five novel mutations in SERPINF1 and confirmed the diagnostic value of serum PEDF level for the first time in Chinese patients with the extremely rare OI type VI. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Liu Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Song L.,BGI Shenzhen Binhai Genomics Institute | Song L.,Tianjin Translational Genomics Center | Ma D.,Peking Union Medical College | And 11 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2016

Backgrounds Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare inherited disease characterized by increased bone fragility and vulnerability to fractures. Recently, WNT1 is identified as a new candidate gene for OI, here we detect pathogenic mutations in WNT1 and analyze the genotype-phenotype association in four Chinese families with OI. Methods We designed a targeted next generation sequencing panel with known fourteen OI-related genes. We applied the approach to detect pathogenic mutations in OI patients and confirmed the mutations with Sanger sequencing and cosegregation analysis. Clinical fractures, bone mineral density (BMD) and the other clinical manifestations were evaluated. We also observed the effects of bisphosphonates in OI patients with WNT1 mutations. Results Four compound heterozygous mutations (c.110T > C; c.505 G > T; c. 385G > A; c.506 G > A) in WNT1 were detected in three unrelated families. These four mutations had not been reported yet. A recurrent homozygous mutation (c.506dupG) was identified in the other two families. These patients had moderate to severe OI, white to blue sclera, absence of dentinogenesis imperfecta and no brain malformation. We did not observe clear genotype-phenotype correlation in WNT1 mutated OI patients. Though bisphosphonates increased BMD in WNT1 related OI patients, height did not increase and fracture continued. Conclusions We reported four novel heterozygous variants and confirmed a previous reported WNT1 mutation in four Chinese families with a clinical diagnosis of OI. Our study expanded OI spectrum and confirmed moderate to severe bone fragility induced by WNT1 defects. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Lv F.,Peking Union Medical College | Xu X.-J.,Peking Union Medical College | Wang J.-Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Liu Y.,Peking Union Medical College | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2016

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by decreased bone mass and recurrent bone fractures. Transmembrane protein 38B (TMEM38B) gene encodes trimeric intracellular cation channel type B (TRIC-B), mutations of which will lead to the rare form of autosomal recessive OI. Here we detected pathogenic gene mutations in TMEM38B and investigated its phenotypes in three children with OI from two non-consanguineous families of Chinese Han origin. The patients suffered from recurrent fractures, low bone mass, mild bone deformities and growth retardation, but did not have impaired hearing or dentinogenesis imperfecta. Next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing revealed a homozygous novel acceptor splice site variant (c.455-7T>G in intron 3, p.R151-G152insVL) in family 1 and a homozygous novel nonsense variant (c.507G>A in exon 4, p.W169X) in family 2. The parents of the probands were all heterozygous carriers of these mutations. We reported the phenotype and novel mutations in TMEM38B of OI for the first time in Chinese population. Our findings of the novel mutations in TMEM38B expand the pathogenic spectrum of OI and strengthen the role of TRIC-B in the pathogenesis of OI. © 2016 The Japan Society of Human Genetics All rights reserved.


Xiao M.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhao R.,Beijing Electrical Power Hospital | Zhang Q.,Peking Union Medical College | Fan X.,Peking Union Medical College | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The α-hemolysin, encoded by the hla gene, is a major virulence factor in S. aureus infections. Changes in key amino acid residues of α-hemolysin can result in reduction, or even loss, of toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of the hla gene sequence and the relationship of hla variants to the clonal background of S. aureus isolates. A total of 47 clinical isolates from China were used in this study, supplemented with in silico analysis of 318 well-characterized whole genome sequences from globally distributed isolates. A total of 28 hla genotypes were found, including three unique to isolates from China, 20 found only in the global genomes and five found in both. The hla genotype generally correlated with the clonal background, particularly the multilocus sequence type, but was not related to geographic origin, host source or methicillin-resistance phenotype. In addition, the hla gene showed greater diversity than the seven loci utilized in the MLST scheme for S. aureus. Our investigation has provided genetic data which may be useful for future studies of toxicity, immunogenicity and vaccine development. Copyright © 2016 Xiao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Gao L.,Peking Union Medical College | Hong X.,Peking Union Medical College | Guo X.,Peking Union Medical College | Cao D.,University of Washington | And 13 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS) is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis. DDCS consists of two morphologically distinct components: The cartilaginous and noncartilaginous components. Whether the two components originate from the same progenitor cells has been controversial. Recurrent DDCS commonly displays increased proliferation compared with the primary tumor. However, there is no conclusive explanation for this mechanism. In this paper, we present two DDCSs in the sellar region. Patient 1 exclusively exhibited a noncartilaginous component with a TP53 frameshift mutation in the pathological specimens from the first surgery. The tumor recurred after radiation therapy with an exceedingly increased proliferation index. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed the presence of both a TP53 mutation and a PTEN deletion in the cartilaginous and the noncartilaginous components of the recurrent tumor. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunostaining confirmed reduced DNA copy number and protein levels of the PTEN gene as a result of the PTEN deletion. Patient 2 exhibited both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous components in the surgical specimens. Targeted NGS of cells from both components showed neither TP53 nor PTEN mutations, making Patient 2 a naïve TP53 and PTEN control for comparison. In conclusion, additional PTEN loss in the background of the TP53 mutation could be the cause of increased proliferation capacity in the recurrent tumor.


Dan S.,Capital Medical University | Yuan Y.,Binhai Genomics Institute | Yuan Y.,Tianjin Translational Genomics Center | Wang Y.,Binhai Genomics Institute | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: Since the discovery of cell-free foetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women, many non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed. In the area of skeletal dysplasia diagnosis, some PCR-based non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed to facilitate the ultrasound diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias that are caused by de novo mutations. However, skeletal dysplasias are a group of heterogeneous genetic diseases, the PCR-based method is hard to detect multiple gene or loci simultaneously, and the diagnosis rate is highly dependent on the accuracy of the ultrasound diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using targeted capture sequencing to detect foetal de novo pathogenic mutations responsible for skeletal dysplasia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Three families whose foetuses were affected by skeletal dysplasia and two control families whose foetuses were affected by other single gene diseases were included in this study. Sixteen genes related to some common lethal skeletal dysplasias were selected for analysis, and probes were designed to capture the coding regions of these genes. Targeted capture sequencing was performed on the maternal plasma DNA, the maternal genomic DNA, and the paternal genomic DNA. The de novo pathogenic variants in the plasma DNA data were identified using a bioinformatical process developed for low frequency mutation detection and a strict variant interpretation strategy. The causal variants could be specifically identified in the plasma, and the results were identical to those obtained by sequencing amniotic fluid samples. Furthermore, a mean of 97% foetal specific alleles, which are alleles that are not shared by maternal genomic DNA and amniotic fluid DNA, were identified successfully in plasma samples. Conclusions/Significance: Our study shows that capture sequencing of maternal plasma DNA can be used to non-invasive detection of de novo pathogenic variants. This method has the potential to be used to facilitate the prenatal diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia. © 2016 Dan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Tan Y.-G.,Capital Medical University | Wang Y.-Q.,Tianjin Translational Genomics Center | Zhang M.,Tianjin Translational Genomics Center | Han Y.-X.,Tianjin Translational Genomics Center | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2016

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by elevated serum anti-mitochondrial Ab and lymphocyte-mediated bile duct damage. This study was designed to reveal the clonal characteristics of B lymphocyte repertoire in patients with PBC to facilitate better understanding of its pathogenesis and better management of these patients. Using highthroughput sequencing of Ig genes, we analyzed the repertoire of circulating B lymphocytes in 43 patients with PBC, and 34 age-and gender-matched healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, PBC patients showed 1) a gain of 14 new clones and a loss of 8 clones; 2) a significant clonal expansion and increased relative IgM abundance, which corresponded with the elevated serum IgM level; 3) a significant reduction of clonal diversity and somatic hypermutations in class-switched sequences, which suggested a general immunocompromised status; 4) the reduction of clonal diversity and enhancement of clonal expansion were more obvious at the cirrhotic stage; and 5) treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid could increase the clonal diversity and reduce clonal expansion of the IgM repertoire, with no obvious effect on the somatic hypermutation level. Our data suggest that PBC is a complex autoimmune disease process with evidence of B lymphocyte clonal gains and losses, Ag-dependent ogligoclonal expansion, and a generally compromised immune reserve. This new insight into the pathogenesis of PBC opens up the prospect of studying disease-relevant B cells to better diagnose and treat this devastating disease. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

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