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Chi Y.,State Oceanic Administration | Shi H.,State Oceanic Administration | Wang X.,Tianjin University of Technology | Qin X.,Tianjin Natural History Museum | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2016

Herbaceous plants are widely distributed on islands and where they exhibit spatial heterogeneity. Accurately identifying the impact factors that drive spatial heterogeneity can reveal typical island biodiversity patterns. Five southern islands in the Miaodao Archipelago, North China were studied herein. The spatial distribution of herbaceous plant diversity on these islands was analyzed, and the impact factors and their degree of impact on spatial heterogeneity were identified using CCA ordination and ANOVA. The results reveal 114 herbaceous plant species, belonging to 94 genera from 34 families in the 50 plots sampled. The total species numbers on different islands were significantly positively correlated with island area, and the average α diversity was correlated with human activities, while the β diversity among islands was more affected by island area than mutual distances. Spatial heterogeneity within islands indicated that the diversities were generally high in areas with higher altitude, slope, total nitrogen, total carbon, and canopy density, and lower moisture content, pH, total phosphorus, total potassium, and aspect. Among the environmental factors, pH, canopy density, total K, total P, moisture content, altitude, and slope had significant gross effects, but only canopy density exhibited a significant net effect. Terrain affected diversity by restricting plantation, plantation in turn influenced soil properties and the two together affected diversity. Therefore, plantation was ultimately the fundamental driving factor for spatial heterogeneity in herbaceous plant diversity on the five islands. © 2016, Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Qin X.,Tianjin Natural History Museum | Zeng Z.,Beijing Museum of Natural History
Acta Theriologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Relationships between environmental factors and the rodent community sampled by a trap-day method was studied by redundancy analysis (RDA) in different habitats of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city from June to August 2008. Relatively high population densities of rodents (ind/100 traps/ha) were found in the village area (8.33), the Ji canal side (8. 00), the highway (7.00) and the bulrush area (6.00). Low population densities were found in the alkali area (1. 00), the estuary (1.00), and the salt pond (0.66). The highest diversity index was found in the village area (1.97) and the highway (1.68), following by the bulrush area (1.40) and the Ji canal side (1.18), the lowest were the salt pond (1.00), the alkali area (0.92), and the estuary (0.92). There were differences in community structures of rodents among the 7 habitats based on the similarity indices, indicating that the structures of rodent communities were affected by environmental factors. RDA with forward selection showed that variation of rodent communities was significantly related to water salinity (F=6.30, P=0.016) and plant coverage (F=4.6, P=0.026), suggesting that these two environmental factors are the most important environmental factors defining the structure of rodent communities in Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city during summer.

Wu A.,Zhoukou Normal University | Guo N.,Zhoukou Normal University | Qin X.,Tianjin Natural History Museum
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2015

Anbanghe wetland is a typical swamp in the cold region. In this study, the concept of functional group was firstly applied to study seasonal variation of phytoplankton community of Anbanghe Wetland. The distribution of phytoplankton functional groups and their relationship with environmental factors were investigated by multivariate analysis techniques. A total of 104 taxa were recorded. There were 14 functional groups, including C, D, E, F, H1, J, Lo, M, MP, N, P, SN, X1 and Y, found during the study periods. Groups C, D, E, J, Lo, N, P and Y were the dominant group. The phytoplankton functional groups exhibited a noticeably seasonal variation. Group E and Lo were predominant in the spring associated with low water temperature (WT) and nutrients availability. Group D, J and P were associated with high WT, nutrients availability and turbidity in the summer. Group J and P were associated with high WT and nutrients availability in the autumn. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that WT, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) were the key environmental factors which impacted the seasonal variation of phytoplankton functional groups in Anbanghe Wetland. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

Qin X.,Tianjin Natural History Museum | Sun N.,Harbin University | Ma L.,Harbin University | Chang Y.,Harbin University | Mu L.,Harbin University
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

In order to examine whether the leaves of the Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens) are damaged or not by traffic pollution, the traits of the anatomy and physiology of its leaves are investigated by exposure to vehicle exhausts in a laboratory experiment lasting 30 days. The results show that both the anatomical structures and physiological traits of the leaves are significantly affected by vehicle exhausts. The anatomical structures, including epidermis, cuticle, palisade, and spongy parenchyma are modified when exposed to the high concentrations (≥0.4 mg/m3) of vehicle exhausts. However, physiological traits such as total chlorophyll content are not changed when exposed to different concentrations of vehicle exhaust. Unlike the total chlorophyll content, the electrical conductivities increased, whereas the POD activities decreased when presented in vehicle exhausts. The present study indicates that the Colorado blue spruce changes its anatomical structures and physiological traits to avoid possible damage by vehicle exhausts. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Lorenzini R.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Garofalo L.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Qin X.,Tianjin Natural History Museum | Voloshina I.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | Lovari S.,University of Siena
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2014

Areas of sympatry and hybridization of closely related species can be difficult to assess through morphological differences alone. Species which coexist and are similar morphologically may be distinguished only with molecular techniques. The roe deer (Capreolus spp.) is a meso-mammal having a Palaearctic distribution, with two closely related species: the European C.capreolus and the Siberian C.pygargus. We analysed mtDNA sequences from 245 individuals, sampled through all the entire range of the genus, to investigate the distribution of genetic lineages and outline phylogeographical patterns. We found that: (1) a C.pygargus lineage occurs in Poland and Lithuania, much farther west than the area which so far was believed its westernmost limit; (2) no haplotype of this C.pygargus lineage matches any found in East Europe and Asia - this should rule out human introductions and may indicate Pleistocene-Holocene migrations from the east; (3) no geographical structuring of C.pygargus lineages occurs, questioning the existence of putative subspecies; (4) several genetic lineages of C.capreolus can be recognized, consistent with the existence of two subspecies, respectively in central-southern Italy and southern Spain. Coalescence times suggest that intraspecific variation in C.capreolus and C.pygargus developed approximately 100-10kya. The extant mitochondrial lineages pre-dated the Last Glacial Maximum. Capreolus pygargus must have moved westward to Central Europe, where at least one genetic lineage still survives, coexisting with C.capreolus. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London.

Chen Z.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Lin B.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Shang H.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Li Y.,Tianjin Natural History Museum
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Wetlands are valuable resources for sustaining biological diversity, but unfortunately they have historically diminished in both quantity and quality. However, little is known about the degree to which the biology of wetlands changes in response to human disturbances. Recently, wetland condition has been assessed using functional assessment methods. Although functional assessment methods include a function for support of wildlife habitat, they usually do not directly measure the biological communities in wetlands and therefore cannot substitute for a biological assessment method. Indexes of biological integrity (IBIs) are one of the most commonly used methods by federal and state agencies in the United States to assess the health condition of wetlands. The IBI approach provides a direct measure of aquatic life that is represented by diverse natural flora and faunal communities. Many groups of organisms have been used as indicators to estimate environmental quality. IBIs have rarely been applied in China; they have been reported only in a small number of studies that evaluated the health of stream ecosystems by means of Benthic-IBI and Fish-IBI. Vascular plants are quickly emerging as one of the best indicators of human-mediated disturbances in the environment, and yet no plant-IBI approach has been used to assess wetland health in China. In this study, we developed a plant-based IBI (P-IBI) to evaluate the condition of the Baiyangdian wetland in response to anthropogenic disturbances. Soil, water, and plant samples were collected from 23 sites in the Baiyangdian wetland during field surveys in 2009 and 2010. Thirty vegetation community composition metrics were evaluated, and nine were eventually selected based on the strength of their correlation with the human disturbance gradient. These metrics included:Percentage of native species; Percentage of perennial species; Number of genera of native perennial plant species; Percentage of monocotyledon species; Number of aquatic guild species; Number of sensitive species; Percentage of tolerant species; and Percentage of annual, biennial and introduced species, and so on. The composite scores summed in the IBI score should also show a strong response to the degree of disturbance of the wetland. We delineated plant data into metrics of the data set and analyzed these metrics using principal components (PCs) and cluster analyses. Each of nine metrics that constituted the P-IBI was scored and included in the total IBI score. After analysis, four quality classes (Good, Fair, Poor, and Very Poor) were determined based on the calculated IBI value:35-45, Good; 27-34, Fair; 19-26, Poor and <18, Very poor. Six of the 23 sites in the Baiyangdian wetland were characterized as Good, five as Fair, seven as Poor, and five as Very Poor. Pearson's correlation analysis between P-IBI and water chemical-physical variables showed that P-IBI corresponded strongly with conductivity (-0.571, P<0.01), Fe (-0.64, P<0.01), Cu (-0.59, P<0.01) and Zn (-0.52, P<0.01). The results suggested that the P-IBI approach was feasible for assessing the health of the Baiyangdian wetland. Insufficient water supply and deteriorating water quality that could be attributed to human disturbances primarily contributed to the degradation of the Baiyangdian wetland.

Qin X.,Tianjin Natural History Museum
Hystrix | Year: 2011

For many animals, bed-site selection is influenced by anti-predator strategies, as they are forced to cope with high risk of predation. I examined summer bed-site selection by roe deer (Capreolus capreolus bedfordi) in an area - Baxianshan Nature Reserve, north China -, where predators were extirpated 22 years before, predicting that roe deer would select the bed-sites which allowed them to maximize fawn survival, independently from predation risk. Among three available forest types, roe deer showed a strong preference for deciduous forests. Roe deer bedded at sites with higher elevation, denser shrub, higher herb biomass and cover and higher percentage of new shoots to the total twigs compared to negative sites. They selected bed-sites relatively far from trees, shrubs, and human features. Furthermore, roe deer avoided areas with tall shrubs and steep slopes. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that food availability, visibility, space, and human disturbance were the most important factors affecting bed-site selection by roe deer. Bed-site selection by roe deer was still the result of anti-predator strategies. This implies that two decades were a too short period to let deer lose the memory of predation pressure. This study suggests that the nonrandom bed-site selection of roe deer aimed to increase reproductive success by enhancing fawn survival.

Ma L.X.,Harbin University | Qin X.B.,Tianjin Natural History Museum | Sun N.,Harbin University | Yang G.T.,Harbin University
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Ecological capital is one of the base of social and economic development. Understanding the ecological capital in a region is very useful to take effective management to improve the sustainable development. Thus, it is very important to assess of the ecological capital in a region. In this study, the ecological capital of the 18 counties in Daxiaoxinganling in 2004 and 2011 were evaluated. The main objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the spatial and temporal variation in ecological capital, (2) the changes in the ratio of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ecological capital in Daxiaoxinganling. The results showed that the ecological capital of the Daxiaoxinganling is unevenly distributed. The high ecological capitals were mainly found in the center region, while the relatively low values were occurred in north and south regions. Such pattern of the ecological capital distribution may be explained by two reasons. One is the land use. The high ecological capitals were occurred in center regions, which is due to the fact that there are large number areas of wetland in there. This is because that the service value of the wetland is with the highest value, for example it's is 65 times higher than forest. The other reason is the net primary productivity (NPP) of the vegetations is different in different regions. NPP is impacted by many factors such as soil type, climate (solar radiation, precipitation, temperature) and human disturbance, etc. In the center regions, which have the optimal environmental factor for the vegetation growth, thus the NNP is high. The total ecological capital was reduced from 2379.26 × 108 Yuan in 2004 to 2308.53 × 108 Yuan in 2011, with a decrease of 2.97%. This indicates that there were no significant changes in the total ecological capital. However, there were profound variations in ecological capital in different counties, with the range from -29.54% to 26.38%. In this study, the variation of ecological capital was classified into seven levels including sharp decline (<-50%), moderate decline (-50%--15%), light decline (-15%-5%), approximately stable (-5%-5%), light increase (5%-15%), moderate increase (15%-50%) and sharp increase (>50%). Bayan County, Donghe County and Heihe City were in the moderate decline for their decline exceeding 15%. Luobei County, Nenjiang County and Suiling County were in the light decline. Beian City and Wudalianchi City were in the moderate increase, while Yichun City, Tieli City and Tangyuan County were in the light increase. The remaining counties were in the approximately stable. The variation of the ecological capital changes can be attributed to the changing in land use as consequence of urbanization. In the present study, the ratios between GDP and ecological capital were gradually increasing in all the counties. It is due to the development of the economy. In order to increase the ecological capital and then improve the sustainable development, the natural resource should be used in different ways in the different economic level regions of Daxiaoxinganling.

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