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Wu B.,Tianjin Municipal Meteorological Bureau | Xie Y.,Tianjin Municipal Meteorological Bureau | Lin Y.,Tianjin Municipal Meteorological Bureau | Ye X.,Peking University | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Meteorology | Year: 2013

An eddy covariance system and other atmospheric and oceanic parameters were measured simultaneously from a fixed Platform-A in the Bohai Gulf during early mid-August 2011. One of the main goals of the comprehensive observation was to reveal the basic meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Bohai Gulf. The results indicated that the diurnal characteristic curve for the air temperature (AT) was steeply unimodal, while the curve of the SST was a bimodal valley type and mainly influenced by tides with its valley value corresponding to the high water level during the observation period. Southeasterly winds dominated and the wind speed was generally lower than 8 m/s, and the atmospheric stability over the Bohai Gulf was generally unstable. The wave strength levels were generally below level 3, with a greater number of swell waves than wind waves. The latter were usually associated with more momentum transport, a larger difference between AT and SST, and less heat transport. During the observational period, the mean momentum, sensible, and latent heat turbulent fluxes were 0.21, 21.6, and 27.8 W/m2, respectively. The ratio of the mean latent and sensible turbulent fluxes was about 1.3 and much lower than that in the South China Sea during the summer. © 2013 Bingui Wu et al.

Sun Y.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Sun Y.,Lanzhou University | Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Zhang C.,Tianjin Municipal Meteorological Bureau
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2010

During the period between 18 August and 22 September 2006, an ultraviolet photometric O3 analyzer, a NO-NO2-NOx chemiluminescence analyzer, and a quartz micro-oscillating-scale particle concentration analyzer were simultaneously used for monitoring at three different heights each at Beijing (325-m tower) and Tianjin (255-m tower). These towers belong to the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and to the Tianjin Municipal Meteorological Bureau, respectively. These measurements were used to continuously measure the atmospheric O3 and NOx volume-by-volume concentrations and the PM2.5 mass concentration within a vertical gradient. When combined with meteorological data and information on the variation of vertical characteristics of the various atmospheric pollutants in the two cities, analysis shows that these two cities were seriously polluted by both PM2. 5 and O3 during summer and autumn. The highest daily-average concentrations of PM2.5 near the ground in Beijing and Tianjin reached 183 μg m-3 and 165 μg m-3, respectively, while the O3 concentrations reached 52 ppb and 77 ppb, and NOx concentrations reached 48 ppb and 62 ppb for these two cities, respectively. The variations in the daily-average concentrations of PM2.5 between Beijing and Tianjin were demonstrated to be consistent over time. The concentrations of PM2.5 measured in Beijing were found to be higher than those in Tianjin. However, the overall O3 concentrations near the ground in Tianjin were higher than in Beijing. NOx concentrations in Tianjin were consistently lower than in Beijing. It was also found that PM2.5 pollution in Beijing's atmosphere may also be affected by the pollutants originating in and delivered from Tianjin, and that Tianjin was impacted by Beijing's pollutants at a significantly reduced level. © Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

Zhang H.,National Climate Center | Zhang M.,Tianjin Municipal Meteorological Bureau | Cui Z.,Tianjin Municipal Meteorological Bureau | Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Xin J.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Acta Meteorologica Sinica | Year: 2012

The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) developed by the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) was used to calculate the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over China in 2006, with emission source data of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data as inputs. The simulation results of AOT were then validated with observational data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network (CSHNET), Aerosol Robotics Network (AERONET), and China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) at more than 30 stations over China. The comparison results indicated that the high values of AOT in the areas such as the Sichuan basin and East and South China and the low values of AOT over the Tibetan Plateau and Northwest and Northeast China were reasonably simulated by the MATCH. This model tended to underestimate the AOT values in high-aerosol-loading areas but overestimate the AOT values in less polluted areas because there are still large uncertainties in the expression of emission sources, the description of the optical properties of aerosols, the treatment of cloud and precipitation, and the selection of grid resolution. The modeling results were consistent with the CSHNET, CARSNET, AERONET, and MODIS data in most parts of China, and the correlation coefficient of the monthly mean AOT between the model and the observation was 0.79 with CSHNET data at 23 stations, 0.51 with MODIS data, and 0.88 with data at 3 CARSNET stations and 2 other stations. All of them passed the significance test with α < 0.0001. The results demonstrated that the MATCH has the ability to simulate the characteristics of the AOT distribution and its seasonal variation over China. ©The Chinese Meteorological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

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