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Cao J.,Peking Union Medical College | Cao J.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine | Cao J.,Ministry of Health | Zhang J.,Tianjin Third Central Hospital | And 25 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

The present study investigates cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes, derived from three victims who were unfortunately exposed to cobalt-60 (60Co) radiation (the 1999 accident occurred in a village in China's Henan province). Case A of the three victims was exposed to a higher dose of 60Co radiation than Cases B and C. The chromosomal aberrations, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN, the CBMN assay), and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the comet assay) examined in this study are biomarkers for cytogenetic abnormalities. After the lymphocytes collected from the victims were cultured, the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes and rings (dic + r) and CBMN in the first mitotic division detected in the lymphocytes of Case A were found to be substantially higher than in Cases B and C. Similarly, the DNA-DSB level found in the peripheral blood collected from Case A was much higher than those of Cases B and C. These results suggest that an acutely enhanced induction of the 60Co-induced cytogenetic abnormality frequency in humans depends on the dose of 60Co radiation. This finding is supported by the data obtained using practical techniques to evaluate early lymphoid-tissue abnormalities induced after exposure to acute radiation. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Wang Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Wang Y.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine | Xu C.,Peking Union Medical College | Xu C.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine | And 17 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Dose- and time-response curves were combined to assess the potential of the comet assay in radiation biodosimetry. The neutral comet assay was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks in lymphocytes caused by γ-ray irradiation. A clear dose-response relationship with DNA double-strand breaks using the comet assay was found at different times after irradiation (p < 0.001). A time-response relationship was also found within 72 h after irradiation (p < 0.001). The curves for DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair in vitro of human lymphocytes presented a nice model, and a smooth, three-dimensional plane model was obtained when the two curves were combined. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Du L.Q.,Peking Union Medical College | Du L.Q.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine | Du L.Q.,Ministry of Health | Wang Y.,Peking Union Medical College | And 23 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms behind the radiation-sensitising effects of the antennapedia proteins (ANTP)-smacN7 fusion protein on tumour cells. ANTP-SmacN7 fusion proteins were synthesised, and the ability of this fusion protein to penetrate cells was observed. Effects of radiation on the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) were detected by western blotting. The radiation-sensitising effects of ANTP-SmacN7 fusion proteins were observed by a clonogenic assay. The effects of drugs and radiation on tumour cell apoptosis were determined using Annexin V/FITC double staining. Changes in caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were detected by western blot before and after ANTP-SmacN7 inhibition of XIAP. The ANTP-SmacN7 fusion protein could enter and accumulate in cells; in vitro XIAP expression of radiation-induced tumour cells was negatively correlated with tumour radiosensitivity. The ANTP-SmacN7 fusion protein promoted tumour cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase3. ANTP-SmacN7 fusion protein may reduce tumour cell radioresistance by inducing caspase3 activation. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Wu D.,Peking Union Medical College | Wu D.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine | Zhang X.-D.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang X.-D.,Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Current Nanoscience | Year: 2011

Targeting imaging and enhanced radiotherapy are very important issues for decrease in diagnosis and therapy. Functionalized gold nanostructures show low toxicity and excellent optical properties, and thus, they can be used as the contrast agent in cancer cell imaging. Furthermore, gold nanostructures can enhance radiotherapy due to strong photoelectric absorption and second electron caused by gamma or X-ray irradiation. This critical review provides a recent progress in fabrication, optical properties (especially, fluorescence of nanoclusters), surface modification, targeting imaging, and enhanced radiotherapy of gold nanostructures. It will interest the radiation medicine, chemistry, spectroscopy, biochemistry, biophysics, and nanoscience communities. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

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