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Qin N.,Tianjin University of Technology | Hao P.Z.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2017

The paper discusses the system characteristics of an untreated sewage source heat pump in winter. In this system, the sewage enters into the evaporator directly. The variable parameters to control the system contain the sewage temperature at evaporator inlet and the water temperature at condenser inlet. It is found that most parameters, except the condensation heat transfer coefficient, change in the form of sine wave the same as the sewage temperature at inlet. The heating load and consumed power are 12.9kW and 3.45kW when the sewage temperature at inlet is 13°C. COP is about 3.75 in the range of the sewage temperature at inlet of 12-13°C. © 2017 SPIE.

Wu C.,University of Adelaide | Wu C.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction | Sheikh H.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Impact Engineering | Year: 2013

Protection of critical infrastructure against bomb attacks due to the rising threat of terrorism requires more attention. An effective solution to mitigate blast effects on infrastructure is to protect them with cellular foam material cladding. This paper investigates the capabilities of metallic foam cladding, which can absorb a significantly high blast energy being a cellular solid, in protecting critical reinforced concrete slabs against blast loadings. A coupled cladding structure interaction model based on the finite element technique has been developed to quantify the interaction between the cladding and the reinforced concrete (RC) slab subjected to blast loads. As the RC slab is supported at its two opposite edges and other edges are free in the present investigation, the slab is idealised as a beam in the proposed model where the small localised regions subjected to high moments are referred to as hinged regions which are connected with the large remaining parts of the structure referred to as non-hinge regions. The foam cladding layer over the RC slab is modelled as a lumped mass spring system which considers deformation of the foam layer in the loading direction. The hinge regions of the beam are simulated with interface elements having rotational stiffness which is obtained from a moment rotation model. The foam is modelled by an array of lumped masses over each beam element node connected by a number of inelastic extensional springs in the loading direction which help to model the progressive densification of the foam layer. Meanwhile a series of blast tests have been carried out by the DSTO (Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia) at their blast testing site at Port Wakefield, South Australia to investigate the effectiveness of the foam protected RC slabs against blast loads. The data recorded from the blast tests have also been used for the validation of the coupled cladding structure interaction model. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang A.,Tohoku University | Wang A.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Li Y.-Y.,Tohoku University | Li Y.-Y.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction | Estrada A.L.,Tohoku University
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2011

The mineralization of antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) of concentrations up to 300mgL-1 was examined by photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) using an activated carbon fiber (ACF) cathode with UVA (365nm) irradiation. Comparative mineralization has been studied by different methods: RuO2/Ti anodic oxidation (AO), AO in the presence of electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), AO-H2O2 in the presence of UVA (AO-H2O2-UVA), and both the electro-Fenton (EF) and PEF processes. PEF treatment at a low applied current of 0.36A yields a faster and more complete depollution with 80% of the TOC removed after 6h of electrolysis. The higher oxidative ability of the PEF process can be attributed to the additional hydroxyl radicals (·OH) produced by the photo-Fenton reaction. The 63% mineralization in the case of EF treatment was due to the formation of short intermediates, such as carboxylic acids, which were difficult to oxidise with ·OH. In the AO-H2O2-UVA process, about 36% of the TOC was removed after 6h electrolysis, while 28% of the TOC was removed in the AO-H2O2 process. SMX is only slightly mineralized by the AO process, with only 25% of the TOC removed. HPLC-MS analysis allowed for up to six aromatic reaction products to be identified during the SMX degradation in the PEF process, mainly formed from the hydroxylation of the aromatic ring or/and isoxazole ring, accompanied by the substitution of the amine group (on aromatic cycle) or methyl group (on isoxazole ring) by ·OH. The carboxylic acids generated, including oxalic, maleic, oxamic, formic and acetic acids, were detected by ion-exclusion chromatography. The initial organic nitrogen was mainly converted into NH4 + along with a very small proportion of NO3 - ion. Considering all the oxidation intermediates and end products for SMX degradation in the PEF process, a general mineralization mechanism by ·OH and UVA was proposed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Liuju B.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2012

This paper states a review on the rapid development of the corrugated cardboard at home and abroad, and gives an introduction of its environmental protection, economical practical advantages and remarkable achievements in the packing industry. Combining with international development trends, this paper points out that domestic design of the corrugated cardboard product is still in the early stage, and its application research should be strengthened. In the end, this paper combines with domestic and international outstanding design examples to analyze the application prospect of corrugated cardboard in the fields of social activity and public life. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Zhang H.D.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction | Wang Y.F.,Beijing Jiaotong University
Steel and Composite Structures | Year: 2012

As an alternative to current conventional force-based assessment methods, the energy-based seismic performance of a code-designed 20-storey high-rise steel building is evaluated in this paper. Using 3D nonlinear dynamic time-history method with consideration of additional material damping effect, the influences of different restoring force models and P-Δ /δ effects on energy components are investigated. By combining equivalent viscous damping and hysteretic damping ratios of the structure subjected to strong ground motions, a new damping model, which is amplitude-dependent, is discussed in detail. According to the analytical results, all energy components are affected to various extents by P-Δ /δ effects and a difference of less than 10% is observed; the energy values of the structure without consideration of P-Δ /δ effects are larger, while the restoring force models have a minor effect on seismic input energy with a difference of less than 5%, but they have a certain effect on both viscous damping energy and hysteretic energy with a difference of about 5~15%. The paper shows that the use of the hysteretic energy at its ultimate state as a seismic design parameter has more advantages than seismic input energy since it presents a more stable value. The total damping ratio of a structure consists of viscous damping ratio and hysteretic damping ratio and it is found that the equivalent viscous damping ratio is a constant for the structure, while the equivalent hysteretic damping ratio approximately increases linearly with structural response in elasto-plastic stage.

Feng Z.-H.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction | Liu L.-Y.,Civil Aviation University of China
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2010

We investigate the fluctuation of the energy in the framework of Tsallis statistics and find the correlation plays an important role in energy fluctuations. In Tsallis statistics, the correlation is induced by the nonextensivity of Tsallis entropy and exists between particles even if the particles are dynamically independent. By taking the generalized ideal gas as an example, we get that when the particle number N is large enough, the relative fluctuation of the energy is proportional to 1 / N instead of 1 / sqrt(N) in Boltzmann statistics. Thus, the relative energy fluctuation is much smaller in Tsallis statistics than that in Boltzmann statistics. Besides, we demonstrate that the introduction of correlation between particle energies leads to smaller energy fluctuations in Tsallis statistics. Crown Copyright © 2009.

Zhang X.,Tianjin Polytechnic University | Li W.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction
Zhongguo Dianji Gongcheng Xuebao/Proceedings of the Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Based on parametric asymmetric blunt trailing-edge airfoil, the effects of trailing-edge thickness and its distribution ratio on aerodynamic performance of wind turbine airfoil were studied. The parametric expressions of asymmetric blunt trailing-edge modification profiles of S834 airfoil were established using the spline function. The lift and drag coefficients, lift-drag ratio, and airfoil surface pressure coefficient were calculated by XFOIL. The results show that when trailing-edge thickness increases, the lift coefficient increases after certain attack angle, and it is more obvious that the drag coefficients of modified airfoils are higher than that of original airfoil, and the lift-drag ratio increases first and then decreases. The lift coefficient in certain range of attack angle and the lift-drag ratio increase with the increasing of the trailing-edge thickness distribution ratio of the lower surface. The best trailing-edge thickness and distribution ratio are 2%c and 1 3, respectively. The research provides significant guidance for designing and optimizing blunt trailing-edge airfoil of wind turbine blade.

Liu Z.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction | Liu C.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction | Ya J.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction | Lei E.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

In this paper, the center hollow ZnO and TiO2 nanotubes arrays were synthesized by chemical etching ZnO nanorods and sol-gel process assisted by ZnO nanorods templates, respectively. And the process concerning the formation of nanotubes was analyzed. Furthermore, as an application of the ZnO and TiO2 nanotubes, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on them were successfully fabricated and the cell performances were characterized. The efficiency of DSSCs based on ZnO and TiO2 nanotubes was 1.2% and 2.1%, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Pan L.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction
International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications | Year: 2013

This paper proposes a novel analysis method for inner resistances of photovoltaic (PV) module. The main objectives are to obtain the resistance parameters of PV modules by adjusting I-V equation and voltage equation of diode and to find the relationship between resistance parameters and power. Firstly, values of serial and parallel resistance at maximum power point are concluded. Secondly, the curves of serial and parallel resistance are obtained when load increased from zero to infinity. Thirdly, the relationship between parallel resistance and power is obtained and the influence caused by ignorance of resistances is analyzed. Finally, simulation and experimental results of photovoltaic module show that the method is correct and feasible.

Cui J.,Tianjin University | Zhang M.,Tianjin University | Zhang Y.,Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2010

A series of amino-salicylaldimine-palladium(II) complexes bearing 5-methyl-3-(R-1-ylmethyl)-salicylaldimine ligands (R = morpholine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, 4-methylpiperazin, diisopropylamine) have been prepared and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. Crystal structure details of complex 2b have been confirmed by X-ray structure analysis. The obtained Pd(II) complexes were found to be effective catalysts for the Suzuki and Heck cross-coupling reactions which could be carried out in the undried solvent under air. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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