Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute

Tianjin, China

Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute

Tianjin, China
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Xia S.,China Institute of Technology | Wang X.,Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute
Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science | Year: 2015

Sea cucumber has been regarded as a highly nutritional food since ancient times, giving it a high economic value today, and making it one of the "eight valuable seafoods" in China. The most prized species in China, Apostichopus japonicus, is high in protein, low in fat, and it contains an abundance of trace elements and other inorganic salts. Furthermore, it is a great source of functional molecules, such as polysaccharides, collagen proteins, and lipids, among others. This chapter introduces the nutritional value of A. japonicus and the composition and function of its major bioactive molecules. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Bai Y.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Zhang L.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Xia S.,Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute | Liu S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | And 4 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Ascorbic acid plays an important role in the growth and immunity of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, a valuable commercial species in China, South Korea, and Japan. In this study, we investigated the dietary ascorbic acid requirements of two newly discovered color morphs of A. japonicus, white and purple, and compared them with that of the common green morph. Six test diets were formulated containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg ascorbic acid equivalent per kg, as l-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate. The color morphs were fed the test diets for 60 days, and their growth, energy budget, and immunological performance recorded. Dietary ascorbic acid levels had a significant effect on the growth of A. japonicus (P < 0.001). The green and purple morphs showed the greatest specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), and food conversion efficiency (FCE) at a dietary ascorbic acid level of 200 mg/kg, while maximum values for the white morph were recorded at 100 mg/kg, indicating a lower ascorbic acid requirement in the white morph than the green and purple morphs. This could be due to the lower growth and metabolic rates recorded in the white morph, whose SGR, IR, and FCE values and immune indicators were lower than the green and the purple morphs. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content of the coelomic fluid was significantly lower when dietary ascorbic acid was ≥200 mg/kg (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) were generally higher at dietary ascorbic acid levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg compared with the other treatments. SOD and CAT activities and T-AOC were significantly and positively correlated with SGR, indicating that supplementary dietary ascorbic acid had a beneficial effect on growth and immunity. SGR, energy intake, and the proportion of energy allocated to growth decreased significantly in the white and purple morphs when ascorbic acid levels reached 800 mg/kg (P < 0.05); as did those of the green morph, but not to a significant level. Immune indicators decreased and MDA content increased slightly at 800 mg/kg, indicating that high levels of dietary ascorbic acid do not benefit growth or immunity. The SOD and CAT activities were higher in the purple morph than the green and white morphs, indicating its superior immune system capacity. Optimum growth and immunity of A. japonicus were achieved at ∼100 mg/kg of ascorbic acid in the white morph and 200 mg/kg in the green and purple morphs. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Li J.-T.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Hou G.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Kong X.-F.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Kong X.-F.,Shanghai Ocean University | And 10 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2015

Whole genome duplication (WGD) results in extensive genetic redundancy. In plants and yeast, WGD is followed by rapid gene deletions and intense expression differentiation with slow functional divergence. However, the early evolution of the gene differentiation processes is poorly understood in vertebrates because almost all studied WGDs are extremely ancient, and the genomes have returned to a diploid status. Common carp had a very recent fourth round of WGD dated to 8 million years ago. It therefore constitutes an ideal model to study early-stage functional divergence and expression differentiation in vertebrates. We identified 1,757 pairs of recently duplicated genes (RDGs) originating from this specific WGD and found that most ancestral genes were retained in duplicate. Most RDGs were conserved and under selective pressure. Gene expression analysis across six tissues revealed that 92.5% of RDG pairs were co-expressed in at least one tissue and that the expression of nearly half pairs ceased to be strongly correlated, indicating slow spatial divergence but rapid expression dissociation. Functional comparison revealed that 25% of pairs had functional divergence, of which neo- and sub-functionalization were the main outcomes. Our analysis revealed slow gene loss but rapid and intense expression and function differentiation after WGD.

Li C.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Li C.-Y.,Shanghai Ocean University | Li C.-Y.,Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute | Li J.-T.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Wu B.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Xia S.,Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute | Rahman M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Rajkumar M.,Kulliyyah of Science | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2015

A 60-day experiment was conducted to develop a practical diet for sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) substituting seaweed with corn leaf. Five experimental diets were constructed with each containing a 70% sea mud. The other 30% is composed of (A) 30% Sargassum thunbergii (seaweed) only, (B) 22.5% seaweed and 7.5% corn (Zea mays) leaves, (C) 15% seaweed and 15% corn leaves, (D) 7.5% seaweed and 22.5% corn leaves and (E) 30% corn leaves only. The experiment was conducted in 15 plastic aquaria containing seawater, each of which stocked with 20 sea cucumbers. Three replicate groups of sea cucumber were fed one of the five experimental diets. The results revealed that the apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and crude protein (ACPD) of the test diets decreased with increasing corn leaf content in diets. Corn leaf content in the sea cucumber diet did not affect the body composition of sea cucumber. 22.5% seaweed can be replaced with powdered corn leaf in the sea cucumber diet without any negative effects on weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) of sea cucumber. Diet containing higher than 15% corn leaf significantly increased the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea cucumber. However, the growth performance and FCR of sea cucumber fed the mixed diet of 15% corn leaf plus 15% seaweed were better than the growth performance and FCR of sea cucumber fed other experimental diets. The regression analysis of dietary corn leaf inclusion level versus SGR revealed that the optimal corn leaf inclusion level was 11.2% for the best growth rate of sea cucumber. Therefore, under the present experimental design and condition, a diet with 70% sea mud plus 18.8% seaweed plus 11.2% corn leaf can be recommended for the best growth performance of sea cucumber. The findings of this study will encourage feed manufacturers and sea cucumber culturists to utilize corn leaf in producing low-cost aqua-feed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Xia S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Xia S.,Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute | Yang H.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Li Y.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

The type of diet used in aquaculture systems affects the feed digestibility and energy budget of the organisms under culture. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was fed diets produced using four different processing methods (extruded pellet diet, cold-bonded pellet diet, flake diet, and mash diet), and growth performance, digestibility, digestive enzyme activity, and energy budget were quantified for 60 d to identify the optimal feed type for use in culturing this species. The specific growth rate ranged from 0.51 to 0.96; the highest rate occurred in specimens fed the extruded pellet diet and the lowest rate was found in those fed the cold-bonded pellet diet. Sea cucumbers fed the extruded pellet diet had the highest energy deposition as growth (11.45%), whereas specimens fed the mash diet had the lowest (5.79%). The apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter (ADMD) and gross energy (AGED) of sea cucumbers fed the extruded pellet diet was higher than that of A. japonicus fed the other diets. When animals were fed the extruded diet, the amylase activity in the gut was significantly higher than in animals fed the mash diet (42.61 vs. 28.40). However, the protease activity was significantly higher in animals fed the mash diet than the extruded diet (7.75 vs. 5.55). Overall, the results of this study indicate that the extruded pellet diet is the optimum feed type for use in the culture of A. japonicus. © 2013.

Wang X.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Wang X.,Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute | Yang H.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Liu G.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province | Wang Q.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2011

To assess the toxicity of heavy metal pollution to marine intertidal shellfish, enzymatic responses and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the clam Mactra vereformis exposed to cadmium under laboratory conditions. Three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx), two immune defense enzymes (acid phosphatase, ACP; alkaline phosphatase, ALP), and one lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde, MDA) were measured in the gills and the hepatopancreas of the clam exposed to 0, 25, 75, and 125 μg/L cadmium for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d. The results show that the concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the organs soared to a peak value on the first day and then decreased afterwards in most cases. CAT and GPx activities in the hepatopancreas were higher than in the gills, but the SOD activity was lower in the hepatopancreas. ACP activity was unchanged until Day 3 in the hepatopancreas and until Day 5 in gills, when it began to increase. ALP activity showed no significant relationship with Cd treatment. MDA concentrations increased in the two tissues after Cd exposure, peaked on Day 3 in gills, and on Day 5 in hepatopancreas. These observations show that changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and ACP reflect the time course of oxidative stress in the clam caused by Cd, and could be used as potential biomarkers for ecotoxicological bioassays of heavy metals. © 2011 Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wang Q.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Wang Q.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | Yang H.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Liu B.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2012

To assess the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls on the early development of Meretrix meretrix, the effects of benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) and Aroclor1254 on embryogenesis and larval development were investigated using static laboratory toxicity tests at nominal concentrations of 6.25-1,600 μg/L. Even at 1,600 μg/L, Bap and Aroclor1254 only caused minor reductions in embryo development rates. The 96 h LC 50 values for D-shaped larvae were 156 μg/L for Bap and 132 μg/L for Aroclor1254, respectively. The most sensitive toxicity endpoint in this study was metamorphosis, with an EC50 value of 20 μg/L for Bap and 35 μg/L for Aroclor1254. Aroclor1254 was more toxic than Bap to embryos and larvae. Our results indicate that Bap and Aroclor1254 do not show extreme toxicity to M. meretrix embryos and larvae. These data provide information for evaluating the toxicity of Bap and Aroclor1254 on bivalve embryos, especially over the entire larval stages. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Zeng C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zeng C.,Victoria University of Wellington | Liu X.-L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu X.-L.,Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2014

In order to test the hypothesis that the expression levels of GH/. IGF axis genes would be negatively related to the expression of the myostatin genes in fish species, we cloned six growth regulating genes including growth hormone receptors-1/-2 (GHRs), insulin-like growth factors-I/-II (IGFs) and myostatins-a/-b (MSTNs) from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). The contents of mRNA transcripts for the six genes were determined in the different tissues of adult and developmental stages for the embryonic and larval periods. The results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that GHRs, IGFs and MSTNs were widely expressed in the tissues we tested, with the relatively lower expression levels in mesonephros, gonad and spleen for the six genes. The analysis of expression correlation coefficients among these six genes showed that GHR 1, GHR 2 and MSTN b were correlated with each other in adult tissues (P < 0.01). For the developmental stages, GHR 1 had a similar expression pattern to GHR 2 during the examined periods, both with the highest expression levels at 160. hpf (hours post-fertilization) (P < 0.05). IGF- II had higher expression levels than that of IGF- I before 400. hpf (P < 0.05), while IGF- I was active after 52. hpf. The maximum of MSTN a and MSTN b mRNA levels were at 24. hpf and 400. hpf, respectively. The analysis of expression correlation coefficients showed that GHR 1, GHR 2, IGF- I, IGF- II and MSTN b were positively correlated with each other during embryonic development (P < 0.01). The results from this study suggested that the relationship between GH/. IGF axis genes and MSTNs was complex and not absolutely negative correlated in fish species. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Xu H.-L.,Tianjin Agricultural College | Gu D.-X.,Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute | Wang R.,Shanghai Ocean University | Qi H.-L.,Tianjin Agricultural College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2016

Length–weight relationships (LWR) for five Gobiidae species collected by trawl net in Bohai Bay, China, were determined. Parameter b in the LWR was 2.871, 2.664, 2.901, 3.237 and 2.882 for Amblychaeturichthys hexanema, Synechogobius ommaturus, Odontamblyopus rubicundus, Tridentiger barbatus and Paratrypauchen microcephalus, respectively. This is the first report in FishBase for the fitted LWRs of three of the Gobiidae species mentioned above. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH

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