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Lian X.,Tianjin University of Commerce | Kang H.,Sichuan Academy of Agricultural science | Sun H.,Tianjin Crops Research Institute | Liu L.,Tianjin University of Commerce | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The retrogradation of rice in shelf life is the biggest barrier to the industrial production of traditional foods using rice as material. Many rice breeders have tried their best to screen low-retrogradation rice cultivars without a specific indicator. To identify the main retrogradation-related properties of rice, the starch, amylose, and amylopectin from 16 rice cultivars were extracted from rice powder and their physicochemical properties, such as visible absorbance, infrared, average molecule weight (amylopectin), chain-length distribution (amylopectin), X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, were determined. The correlation between starch retrogradation rates and those physicochemical properties was investigated. The results show that a significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.85; r = 0.926; p < 0.01) exists only between proportions of the chains [degree of polymerization (DP) > 10] in amylopectin and the retrogradation rates of different rice starches. The findings in the paper offer a shortcut for rice breeders to screen cultivars with a low retrogradation rate. Because the genes related to the branching enzyme control the DP of amylopectin, they can be exploited as molecular markers to screen low-retrogradation rice cultivars. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

Peng B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Peng B.,Tianjin Crops Research Institute | Li Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Simultaneous improvement in grain yield and related traits in maize hybrids and their parents (inbred lines) requires a better knowledge of genotypic correlations between family per se performance (FP) and testcross performance (TP). Thus, to understand the genetic basis of yield-related traits in both inbred lines and their testcrosses, two F2:3 populations (including 230 and 235 families, respectively) were evaluated for both FP and TP of eight yield-related traits in three diverse environments. Genotypic correlations between FP and TP, rg (FP, TP), were low (0-0. 16) for grain yield per plant (GYPP) and kernel number per plant (KNPP) in the two populations, but relatively higher (0. 32-0. 69) for the other six traits with additive effects as the primary gene action. Similar results were demonstrated by the genotypic correlations between observed and predicted TP values based on quantitative trait loci positions and effects for FP, rg (MFP, YTP). A total of 88 and 35 QTL were detected with FP and TP, respectively, across all eight traits in the two populations. However, the genotypic variances explained by the QTL detected in the cross-validation analysis were much lower than those in the whole data set for all traits. Several common QTL between FP and TP that accounted for large phenotypic variances were clustered in four genomic regions (bin 1. 10, 4. 05-4. 06, 9. 02, and 10. 04), which are promising candidate loci for further map-based cloning and improvement in grain yield in maize. Compared with publicly available QTL data, these QTL were also detected in a wide range of genetic backgrounds and environments in maize. These results imply that effective selection based on FP to improve TP could be achieved for traits with prevailing additive effects. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Peng B.,Tianjin Crops Research Institute | Li Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu C.,Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Science | And 8 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Huangzaosi, Qi319, and Ye478 are foundation inbred lines widely used in maize breeding in China. To elucidate genetic base of yield components and kernelrelated traits in these elite lines, two F2:3 populations derived from crosses Qi319 × Huangzaosi (Q/H, 230 families) and Ye478 Huangzaosi (Y/ Huangzaosi (Y/H, 235 families), as well as their parents were evaluated in six environments including Henan, Beijing, and Xinjiang in 2007 and 2008. Correlation and hypergeometric probability function analyses showed the dependence of yield components on kernel- related traits. Three mapping procedures were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for each population: (1) analysis for each of the six environments, (2) joint analysis for each of the three locations across 2 years, and (3) joint analysis across all environments. For the eight traits measured, 90, 89, and 58 QTL for Q/H, and 72, 76, and 51 QTL for Y/H were detected by the three QTL mapping procedures, respectively. About 70% of the QTL from Q/H and 90% of the QTL from Y/H did not show significant QTL × environment interactions in the joint analysis across all environments. Most of the QTL for kernel traits exhibited high stability across 2 years at the same location, even across different locations. Seven major QTL detected under at least four environments were identified on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 10 in the populations. Moreover, QTL on chr. 1, chr. 4, and chr. 9 were detected in both populations. These chromosomal regions could be targets for marker-assisted selection, fine mapping, and map-based cloning in maize. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Xijun L.,Tianjin University of Commerce | Xijun L.,South China University of Technology | Xijun L.,Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety | Haibo S.,Tianjin Crops Research Institute | And 4 more authors.

The chemical features of lipid and protein in sweet potato and maize starches were investigated by comparing their IR and NMR spectra before and after hydrolysis by lipase or alkali protease. The results showed that the absence of C-Hstretching vibration near 2930 cm-1 in IR spectra of sweet potato and maize starches hydrolyzed by lipase or protease was probably due to an interaction of amylose and amylopectin without lipid or protein. The results of 13C NMR showed that the lipid and protein were attached to each other in those two starches and both connected with maize starch, but only lipid connected directly with sweet potato starch. Lipid in starch probably inhibits crystal formation of starches, but protein in starch promotes the process. The characteristic fatty acids for sweet potato starch were CH 3-(CH2)13-COOH+Lys+Glucose (G) and CH 3-(CH=CH)4-(CH2)4-COOH+G, for maize starch, CH3-(CH= CH)6-(CH2)29-COOH. The typical peptides for sweet potato starch might be Lys+Phe+Ala+G+G and Leu+Lys+Leu+G, for maize starch, they were Asp+Val+Leu+Val and Asp+Glu+Leu+Glu. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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