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Wang Z.,Tianjin University | Wang Z.,Tianjin Collaborative Innovation Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | Sun L.,Tianjin University | Sun L.,Tianjin Collaborative Innovation Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | And 5 more authors.
European Polymer Journal | Year: 2014

A novel, environmental friendly approach was introduced to fabricate polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber membranes with interconnected sponge-like structure and high permeability for membrane distillation. The effect of different parameters on the morphologies and properties of the membranes were investigated. The pore size and porosity were in the range of 0.20-0.40 μm and 61.07-79.36% respectively. The maximum tensile strength was 6.941 MPa. The nitrogen flux under 0.2 MPa and pure water flux were as high as 44 L/(m2 s) and 4290 L/(m2 atm h) respectively. The direct contact membrane distillation flux reached 77.6 kg/(m2 h). The membranes prepared by this method meet the requirements of direct contact membrane distillation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Wang Z.,Tianjin University | Wang Z.,Tianjin Collaborative Innovation Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | Wang L.,Tianjin University | Wang L.,Tianjin Collaborative Innovation Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2015

The characteristics of cross flow vacuum membrane distillation under different operation conditions and the comparison of different membranes under the same operation condition are studied for better understanding of the novel vacuum membrane a distillation process. Different membranes exhibit the same characteristics. The permeate flux versus feed linear velocity and feed inlet temperature are right opening growth parabola and up opening growth parabola, respectively. An important transition region of feed linear velocity which is in the range of 100-250. cm/min at any feed inlet temperature and vacuum pressure is observed in the permeate flux curves. A transition region between 65. °C and 70. °C of feed inlet temperature at the vacuum pressure of 0.09. MPa is also observed in the permeate flux curves. The permeate flux versus vacuum pressure is the linear growth line. Temperature polarization is intensified with feed linear velocity and feed inlet temperature. The vapor produced in vacuum membrane distillation process is almost saturated vapor. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Zhang L.,Nankai University | Zhang L.,Tianjin Collaborative Innovation Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | Han L.,Nankai University | Han L.,Tianjin Collaborative Innovation Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | And 4 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

Multichannel carbon nanofibers (MCNFs) have been fabricated by annealing electrospun PAN/PS immiscible polymer nanofibers. The obtained mechanically flexible mats of MCNFs, possessing an integrative architecture, are used as an electrode directly with no binder and without any activation processes. Owing to the binder-free characteristic, unique multichannel structure and high specific surface area, the MCNFs show high capacitance (270 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1), perfect cycling stability (the capacitance does not decrease after 5000 cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1), excellent rate capability (89% retention at a current density of 20 A g-1) and high energy and power density. These results demonstrate that the electrode material has a promising prospect in applications of energy storage. © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Zhang L.,Nankai University | Zhang L.,Tianjin Collaborative Innovation Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | Jiang Y.,Nankai University | Jiang Y.,Tianjin Collaborative Innovation Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering | And 6 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2016

1D hierarchical porous carbon nanofibers (HPCNFs) are prepared via electrospinning ternary PAN/N, N'-dimethylformamide (DMF)/tetrahydrofurar (THF) and using commercially available nano-CaCO3 as template. In the process of carbonization, nano-CaCO3 template decomposes and releases CO2 to form micropores and mesopores. Macropores are generated by removing the CaO nanoparticles using acid subsequently. The hierarchical pores are fairly well distributed because the nano-CaCO3 particles are highly dispersed in the fiber due to the better wettability in binary solvent. The obtained HPCNFs attain high specific surface area without physical and chemical activation. The HPCNF mats, possessing free-standing architecture, are used as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor. Because of high specific surface area, rational pore diameter distribution and binder-free characterization of electrodes, the HPCNFs display a high capacitance of 251 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 as well as excellent rate capability and outstanding cycling stability (over 88% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles at the current density of 1 A g-1). These results demonstrate that the binary solvent method is effective to achieve high-performance electrode materials and it has a promising prospect on applications of energy storages. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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