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Becker P.M.,Wageningen UR Livestock Research | Yu P.,University of Saskatchewan | Yu P.,Tianjin Agricultural University
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2013

This paper gives an insight into key factors, which impair enzymatic protein digestion. By nature, some proteins in raw products are already poorly digestible because of structural peculiarities, or due to their occurrence in plant cytoplasmic organelles or in cell membranes. In plant-based protein, molecular and structural changes can be induced by genetic engineering, even if protein is not a target compound class of the genetic modification. Other proteins only become difficult to digest due to changes that occur during the processing of proteinaceous products, such as extruding, boiling, or acidic or alkaline treatment. The utilization of proteinaceous raw materials in industrial fermentations can also have negative impacts on protein digestibility, when reused as fermentation by-products for animal nutrition, such as brewers' grains. After consumption, protein digestion can be impeded in the intestine by the presence of antinutritional factors, which are ingested together with the food or feedstuff. It is concluded that the encircling matrix, but also molecular, chemical, and structural peculiarities or modifications to amino acids and proteins obstruct protein digestion by common proteolytic enzymes in humans and animals. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Yang R.,Tianjin University | Yang R.,Tianjin Agricultural University | Liu R.,Tianjin University | Xu K.,Tianjin University
Food Bioscience | Year: 2013

A new approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of adulterated milk is proposed by combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DC0S) with multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS). Forty pure milk and 40 adulterated milk samples with melamine were prepared and the infrared absorption spectra were measured. The two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectra were calculated to construct the multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA) model for milk adulterated with melamine. Our study showed the higher accuracy of predicting adulterated milk of 95% using NPLS-DA, versus 85% using conventional one-dimensional spectra and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Also, the quantitative analysis models were constructed to determine concentration of melamine in milk. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.106 gL-1 using the N-PLS method and 0.16 gL-1 using conventional one-dimensional spectra and partial least squares (PLS). Comparison results show that the proposed new method is superior to the traditional method and the use of 2DCOS with N-PLS is promising to quantify the adulterants in pure milk. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Xu J.,Tianjin University | Li Y.,Tianjin Agricultural University
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2012

Intense exercise increases oxygen consumption and may produce an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, inducing oxidative stress as a result of increased ROS production. Exogenous antioxidants may prevent oxidative damages since they are able to detoxify certain peroxides by scavenging the ROS produced during exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of salidroside on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. A total of 40 animals were randomly divided into four groups of ten rats each: control (C), low-dose salidroside-treated (LT), middle-dose salidroside-treated (MT) and high-dose salidroside-treated (HT) groups. The rats in the treated groups received salidroside (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) intragastrically (ig) and the rats in the control group received drinking water ig for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the rats performed an exhaustive swimming exercise and exhaustive swimming times were recorded. The malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glycogen levels in the liver tissues of the rats were measured. The data revealed that salidroside was able to elevate the exercise tolerance and increase the liver glycogen levels of the rats following exhaustive exercise. Salidroside was also able to reduce MDA levels and enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD and GSH-Px) in the liver tissues of the rats. The results from this study indicate that salidroside is effective in the prevention of oxidative stress following exhaustive exercise. Source


Ma L.,Tianjin Agricultural University | Xiong Y.L.,University of Kentucky
Meat Science | Year: 2011

The objective of the study was to create marbling-like fat in lean pork with acceptable oxidative stability through the injection of canola/olive oil-substituted emulsions. Pork loins were injected with 5% water as control (CW) or 5% emulsion containing no tocopherols (E) or 0.07% tocopherols (ET) and stored at 2 °C in an oxygen-enriched package for up to 3. weeks. Lipid oxidation was totally inhibited in ET pork but increased 3-fold to 0.20. mg malonaldehyde/kg in CW and E pork after 3. weeks. ET treatment also had a positive effect on meat red color. Emulsion-containing pork, showing less protein oxidation (carbonyl and disulfide formation), had reduced drip loss and shear force than CW samples (P< 0.05). The results indicated that incorporation of antioxidant-containing emulsions could create marbling-like texture in lean pork without compromising oxidative stability. © 2011. Source


The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B3, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B1 and B2 were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and β-sheet height among the combinations, the ratio of α-helix to β-sheet height was changed quadratically; 3) in the in situ 48-h residue samples, amide I and amide II peak area intensities were increased linearly and the ratio of amide I to II peak area was decreased linearly from 4.28 to 2.63; α-helix and β-sheet height of rumen residues were similar among 5 feed combinations; and 4) the ratio of α-helix to β-sheet height in original feed combinations was strongly correlation with protein chemical and nutrient profiles, but the ratio of amide I to II area had no significant correlation with all items that were tested; no correlation was found between the ratio of α-helix to β-sheet height of the in situ rumen residues and protein chemical and nutrient profiles. In conclusion, by integration of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat DDGS, feed quality in combined feeds was improved and more optimized. Adding wheat DDGS increased linearly CP, truly digestible CP, rumen-degradable protein, rumen-undegradable protein, DVE, and OEB values in combined feeds. The molecular spectral differences of protein molecular structures (amide I and II area intensities, the ratio of amide I to amide II, and the ratio of α-helix to β-sheet height among feed combinations) were detected among the combinations. This may partially explain the biological differences in protein chemical profiles and protein utilization and availability in dairy cattle. In the original combined feeds, protein α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio had significant correlations with protein chemical and nutrient profiles, but in in situ 48-h residue samples, protein amide I-to-II ratio had significant correlations with protein chemical and nutrient profiles. This study may provide an insight into how to more efficiently use hulless barley grain (high energy and high degradation rate) and wheat DDGS (high metabolizable protein and low degradation rate) in beef and dairy production systems. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Source

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