Hingorani M.,Institute of Cancer Research |
Spitzweg C.,Medizinische Klinik II |
Vassaux G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Newbold K.,Thyroid Unit |
And 4 more authors.
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2010
The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for thyroidal, salivary, gastric, intestinal and mammary iodide uptake. It was first cloned from the rat in 1996 and shortly thereafter from human and mouse tissue. In the intervening years, we have learned a great deal about the biology of NIS. Detailed knowledge of its genomic structure, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation and pharmacological modulation has underpinned the selection of NIS as an exciting approach for targeted gene delivery. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the potential of using NIS gene therapy as a means of delivering highly conformal radiation doses selectively to tumours. This strategy is particularly attractive because it can be used with both diagnostic (99mTc, 125I, 124I) and therapeutic ( 131I, 186Re, 188Re, 211At) radioisotopes and it lends itself to incorporation with standard treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. In this article, we review the biology of NIS and discuss its development for gene therapy. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Giles W.H.,Brigham and Womens Hospital |
Maclellan R.A.,Childrens Hospital |
Gawande A.A.,Brigham and Womens Hospital |
Ruan D.T.,Brigham and Womens Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2015
Background: Controversy exists regarding the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in large thyroid nodules. Recent surgical series have documented false-negative rates ranging from 0.7 to 13 %. We examined the accuracy of benign FNA cytology in patients with thyroid nodules ≥3 cm who underwent surgical resection and identified features characteristic of false-negative results.Methods: We retrospectively studied all thyroidectomy specimens between January 2009 and October 2011 and identified nodules ≥3 cm with corresponding benign preoperative FNA cytology. We collected clinical information regarding patient demographics, nodule size, symptoms, sonographic features, FNA results, and final surgical pathology. For comparison, we analyzed nodules <3 cm from this cohort also with benign FNA cytology.Results: A total of 323 nodules with benign preoperative cytology were identified. Eighty-three nodules were <3 cm, 94 nodules were 3–3.9 cm, and 146 nodules were ≥4 cm in size. The false-negative rate was 11.7 % for all nodules ≥3 cm and 4.8 % for nodules <3 cm (p = 0.03). Subgroup analysis of nodules ≥3 cm revealed a false-negative rate of 12.8 % for nodules 3–3.9 cm and 11 % for nodules ≥4 cm. Age ≥55 years and asymptomatic clinical status were the only patient characteristics that reached statistical significance as risk factors. Final pathology of the false-negative specimens consisted mainly of follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer.Conclusions: When referred for thyroidectomy, patients with large thyroid nodules demonstrate a modest, yet significant, false-negative rate despite initial benign aspiration cytology. Therefore, thyroid nodules ≥3 cm may be considered for removal even when referred with benign preoperative cytology. © 2014, Society of Surgical Oncology.
Liu X.,Nanjing Medical University |
Cai Y.,Nanjing Medical University |
Wang Z.,Nanjing Medical University |
Cui D.,Nanjing Medical University |
And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Year: 2016
Background: Controversy exists about the diagnostic value of liquid-based cytology (LBC) compared to conventional smears (CS). Most prior studies of LBC were performed using ThinPrep system. Few studies have ever compared the adequacy rate of SurePath with conventional smears. Methods: We performed a prospective comparison of LBC using SurePath with CS in 304 thyroid nodules. Four needle sticks constituted a single nodule FNA, with 2 passes used for CS while the other 2 passes were used for SurePath. Cytopathologists separately read all samples, and all slides were reported using the Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytology. The adequacy rate was compared between the CS and SurePath groups. Results: The adequacy rate for all solid nodules was 78.2% in CS group, significantly higher than 68.0% in the SurePath group (P=0.006). No significant difference was seen for mixed or cystic nodules. The adequacy rate using a combination of CS and SurePath in solid nodules was 86.4%, significantly higher than 78.2% in CS group (P < 0.001). When excluding nodules less than 1 cm, the adequacy rate of CS for solid nodules was 83.5%, significantly higher than 71.3% in SurePath group (P=0.02). The adequacy rate of combination of CS and SurePath was 91.3% for solid nodules, significantly higher than 83.5% in CS group (P=0.04). Conclusion: Our study showed that LBC using SurePath is not superior to conventional smears. However, a combination of both SurePath and CS may yield the most favorable adequacy rate compared to either process separately.
Altinay S.,Thyroid Unit |
Namal E.,Bagclar Training and Education Hospital |
Erturkuner P.,Istanbul University
Oncology Letters | Year: 2014
Angiomatoid tumors of the thyroid gland are rare endocrine neoplasms, which exhibit an aggressive behavior. Angiosarcomas of the thyroid are generally reported from the European Alpine region and have a histogenesis that has been under debate for a number of years. The current study presents a rare case of angiosarcoma of the thyroid in a 62-year-old Turkish female. The patient had a 10-year history of goiter and was from the Black Sea region, an endemic goiter region of Turkey. The patient was not taking any medication at the time of admission and swelling had been observed on the right side of the neck throughout the previous few months. Thyroid function tests, which analyzed the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, were within the normal limits, however, the histopathological findings were consistent with an angiosarcoma of the thyroid. The patient rejected the complementary surgery and chemotherapy options, and is currently disease-free (as per the 15-month follow-up). The current study describes a case of angiosarcoma that was characterized by Weibel-Palade bodies, and light microscopy and immunohistochemical findings, as well as an endothelial origin, which was demonstrated via electron microscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of angiosarcoma of the thyroid in a patient from Turkey to be validated by electron microscopy. Furthermore, this case is one of the few reported thyroid angiosarcoma cases in a non-Alpine region. © Spandidos Publications 2014. All rights reserved.
Grande E.,Servicio de Oncologia Medica |
Kreissl M.C.,University Hospital of Wuerzburg |
Filetti S.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
Newbold K.,Thyroid Unit |
And 6 more authors.
Advances in Therapy | Year: 2013
Introduction: Vandetanib has recently demonstrated clinically meaningful benefits in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Given the potential for long-term vandetanib therapy in this setting, in addition to treatment for disease-related symptoms, effective management of related adverse events (AEs) is vital to ensure patient compliance and maximize clinical benefit with vandetanib therapy. Methods: This expert meeting-based review aims to summarize published data on AEs associated with vandetanib therapy and to provide clinicians with specific practical guidance on education, monitoring, and management of toxicities induced in patients treated with vandetanib in advanced and metastatic MTC. The content of this review is based on the expert discussions from a multidisciplinary meeting held in October 2012. Results: Characteristics, frequency, and risk data are outlined for a number of dermatological, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and general AEs related to vandetanib treatment. Preventive strategies, practical treatment suggestions, and points for clinical consideration are provided. Conclusions: Good patient and team communication is necessary for the prevention, early detection, and management of AEs of vandetanib. Physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers play a critical role in providing AE management and patient support to optimize outcomes with vandetanib in MTC. © 2013 The Author(s).