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Maenz S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Kunisch E.,Jena University Hospital | Muhlstadt M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Bohm A.,Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials | Year: 2014

Injectable, brushite-forming calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have great potential as bone replacement materials due to enhanced degradability and long-term inclusion in bone remodeling. However, the use of such brushite-forming CPCs in load-bearing areas is limited by their low mechanical strength. One approach to overcome this limitation is the use of reinforcing fibers. Thus, an injectable, biodegradable, brushite-forming CPC based on beta-tricalcium phosphate/phosphoric acid with fiber reinforcement was developed for minimally invasive surgery. The fibers (diameter 25. μm; length 0.25, 1 or 2. mm) were extruded from poly(l-lactide co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) and added to the CPC (2.5, 5 or 7.5% (w/w)). Independent of the fiber content, injectability of the CPC was retained up to a fiber length of 1. mm. The addition of all PLGA fiber types increased diametral tensile strength, biaxial flexural strength, and flexural strength by up to 25% (p≤0.05 for the diametral tensile strength for the CPC with 5% (w/w) 1. mm fibers and the biaxial flexural strength of the CPC with 5% (w/w) 0.25. mm fibers). In contrast, the work of fracture strongly and significantly increased (p<0.01) by up to 12.5-fold. At constant fiber content, the mechanical properties of the fiber-reinforced CPC were mostly augmented with increasing fiber length. Also, the addition of PLGA fibers to the brushite-forming CPC (up to 7.5% (w/w)) only transiently delayed cell growth and did not decrease cell viability. Fiber reinforcement of CPCs thus augments their mechanical strength while preserving the injectability and biocompatibility required for their application in modern surgery. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Petzold-Welcke K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Schwikal K.,Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research | Daus S.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Heinze T.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

The chemical modification of xylan is a promising path to new biopolymer ethers and esters with specific properties depending on the functional groups, the degree of substitution, and the substitution pattern. The reaction of 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan (GX) from birch with sodium monochloroacetate and 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium hydroxide/slurry medium is described. The influence of the conditions of activation on product structure and properties are discussed in some detail. Methylation of GX was investigated under completely heterogeneous conditions or starting with dissolved polymer using methyl halides as reagents in the presence of NaOH. An activation of the biopolymer has been carried out before the reaction to enhance the accessibility of the reagents. Furthermore, novel xylan esters were efficiently synthesized by conversion of the hemicellulose with furan- and pyroglutamic acid as well as ibuprofen and N,N′-carbonyldiimidazole as activating agent under homogeneous conditions in dimethyl sulfoxide. This conditions are also appropriate to synthesize novel xylan ester containing xylan-4-[N,N,N-trimethylammonium]butyrate chloride moieties. Homogeneous syntheses of xylan sulfates could be carried out in a N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)/LiCl as solvent applying sulfur trioxide complexes with DMF or pyridine. Advanced analytical techniques including NMR spectroscopy, HPLC, scanning electron microscopy, rheology, measurements of turbidity and surface tension allow description of structure-property-relationships; selected results will be briefly discussed. Xylan esters may form spherical nanoparticles of a size down to 60 nm and a narrow particle size distribution applying a simple dialysis process and may be used for drug delivery applications. For cationic xylan derivatives a wide range of applications as paper strength additives, flocculation aids, and antimicrobial agents are proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Loewenstein T.,Justus Liebig University | Rudolph M.,Justus Liebig University | Mingebach M.,Justus Liebig University | Strauch K.,Justus Liebig University | And 4 more authors.
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2010

A strategy is presented to realize textile-based photovoltaic cells motivated by developments of textile-based electronics and their demand of grid-independent energy supply. Beyond this, a development of textile-based photovoltaics also represents an attractive pathway towards very flexible and rugged solar cells. The need for compatibility of an appropriate photovoltaic technology with the physical limitations of textiles is stressed. Electrodeposition from aqueous solutions is presented as a successful strategy to realize semiconductor structures on textiles and detailed control and influence of the deposition conditions is discussed. The role of microelectrode effects, options of forced convection, deposition under pulsed potential, alternative deposition baths and different substrate metals are emphasized. An active electrode material is presented which reaches a conversion efficiency close to the 1% limit under AM 1.5 illumination conditions and thereby opens the door for a further optimization towards devices of technical interest. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Dammak A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Moreau C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Beury N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Schwikal K.,Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research | And 4 more authors.
Holzforschung | Year: 2013

Multilayered thin films have been prepared by means of the "spin-assisted electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly" method, in which cellulose nanocrystals (CN) and cationic xylans (CX) are alternatively deposited up to 10 times on a rotating silicon wafer. The film growth process was studied and the thickness increment was found to be equal to 23 nm per bilayer. This value is relatively high in comparison with that of previous studies. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the surface of the films consists of thick layers of CX, which are deposited as a compact network of aggregates on the CN layers. After a few deposition cycles, structural color appears. When the film is submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis of xylans, the thickness of the film decreases and a visible color change is induced. The sensitivity of the test was evaluated in comparison with a usual colorimetric measurement, which relies on the detection of reducing sugars set free by enzymatic hydrolysis. The assay sensitivity was found to be similar to that of the colorimetric method. The presented new method is simple, fast, and easy to use. These findings show that the method based on multilayer thin films might open new opportunities to optimize the screening assays for xylanase discovery. © 2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston 2013.

Stark A.,University of Leipzig | Sellin M.,Thuringian Institute of Textile and Plastics Research | Ondruschka B.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Massonne K.,BASF
Science China Chemistry | Year: 2012

It is nowadays well-known that ionic liquids can dissolve cellulose. However, little systematic data has been published that shed light onto the influence of the ionic liquid structure on the dissolution of cellulose. We have conducted 1H NMR spectroscopy of ethanol in a large number of ionic liquids, and found an excellent correlation of the data obtained with the hydrogen acceptor properties (β-values). With this tool in hand, it is possible to distinguish between cellulose-dissolving and non-dissolving ionic liquids. A modulating effect of both, the anion of the non-dissolving ionic liquid and its cation was found in solubility studies with binary ionic liquid mixtures. The study was extended to other non-dissolving liquids, namely water and dimethylsulfoxide, and the effect of the cation was also investigated. © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

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