Singh A.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur |
Panda S.N.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur |
Saxena C.K.,CIAE |
Verma C.L.,CSSRI Regional Research Station |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering | Year: 2016
The continuous increase in global population and simultaneous decrease in good-quality water resources emphasize the need of conjunctive use of groundwater and surface-water resources for irrigation. The optimal allocation of water resources can be achieved by employing an appropriate optimization technique. This paper presents an overview of the different programming techniques used for the conjunctive use planning and management of irrigated agriculture. Past papers on the applications of different programming techniques for the conjunctive use of different water sources are grouped into four categories: linear programming, nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, and genetic algorithms. Conclusions are provided based on this review, which could be useful for all stakeholders. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Stephan T.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg |
Kroner U.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg |
Hahn T.,Bayerisches Landesamt fur Umwelt |
Hallas P.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg |
Heuse T.,Thuringer Landesanstalt fur Umwelt und Geologie TLUG
Tectonophysics | Year: 2016
The boundary between the Rheno-Hercynian and the Saxo-Thuringian zones of the European Variscides is characterized by a NE-SW striking late orogenic fold-and-thrust belt affecting the intervening Rheic suture. Classical models used the first-order strike of this zone as an indicator for perpendicular plate convergence, i.e. NW-SE. We present structural data from both sides of the suture, focusing on fold-cleavage relationships. The statistical analysis reveals an orientation maximum of the youngest cleavage that deviates from the strike of the fold-and-thrust belt by c. 22°. The presence of clockwise transection of the folds by the cleavage (up to -16°) indicates pervasive sinistral transpression. Three types of fold-cleavage relationships are observed: NE trending folds (I) with or (II) without a transecting cleavage, and (III) non-transected ENE trending folds. We explain the occurrence of different fold-cleavage types by strain partitioning due to NNW convergence obliquely to pre-existent NE trending mechanical anisotropies. In terms of plate tectonics we propose that the classical boundary of the Rheno-Hercynian and the Saxo-Thuringian Zone represents an initial transform plate boundary that was finally affected by sinistral transpression. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Extensive grazing and requirements for the new agricultural policy - Promotion of biological diversity, climate protection, water balance and landscape aesthetics [Extensive weidewirtschaft und forderungen an die neue agrarpolitik: Förderung von biologischer vielfalt, klimaschutz, wasserhaushalt und landschaftsästhetik]
Metzner J.,Deutscher Verband fur Landschaftspflege e.V. DVL |
Jedicke E.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Luick R.,Rottenburg College of Forest Sciences |
Reisinger E.,Thuringer Landesanstalt fur Umwelt und Geologie TLUG |
Tischew S.,Anhalt University of Applied Sciences
Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung | Year: 2010
The near-natural pasturing of our cultural landscape stands for a modern, multi-functional agriculture. Many farms with grazing animals have an important share in effectively implementing the European challenges to protect biological diversity, climate and water. The subsequent paper - supported by numerous associations - makes proposals for a better establishment of extensive grazing in the funding guidelines of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the EU after 2013. Existing instruments are to be advanced in the following areas: On extensively grazed grasslands it should in future be possible to generally activate payment claims of the 1 st column, and to combine them with aid programmes of the 2nd column. In order to reduce the risks of reclaims for the applicants the sites are to be identified by a specific code with an "integrated administration and control system", and the implementation of the measures is to be controlled according to nature conservation criteria. In the context of the 2 nd column the study recommends the expansion of agri-environmental measures - including better co-financing by the EU, additional incentives and contract periods of up to 20 years. Additionally landscape management programmes have to be established on the basis of the Regulation of the EAFRD (Art. 57) - including invested-related measures which are not covered by agri-environmental schemes. The comprehensive counselling of the farms aims to promote a better integration of extensive grazing, ensuring the optimal combination of measures of the 1 st and 2 nd column. The study recommends the following measures which are particularly eligible: (a) extensive all-year continuous grazing with cattle and horses, (b) conversion of arable fields into extensively grazed grasslands in flood areas and on fen soils, and (c) biotope management with sheep and goats.
Lange V.S.,Rottenburg College of Forest Sciences |
Luick R.,Rottenburg College of Forest Sciences |
Reisinger E.,Thuringer Landesanstalt fur Umwelt und Geologie TLUG
Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung | Year: 2011
Life Cycle Assessment of Extensive All-year Grazing of Cattle - Transferability of basic data of select studies The study aims to establish a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the beef production from extensive all-year grazing with the main purpose of environmental protection and landscape conservation. The study was conducted in compliance with international standards. The main goal was to extract, quantify and evaluate relevant environmental impacts from technical expenditures related to beef production, using the example of the "Agrar GmbH Crawinkel" (Thuringia). The study intends to provide arguments into the debate on the ecological benefits of large-scale extensive grazing systems. The approach defined 1 kg of beef as unit of reference and took into account all relevant technical expenditures for its production ("cradle to gate"). The assessment of the environmental impacts considered the categories global warming, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation and ozone depletion. Furthermore, the consumption of renewable as well as non-renewable energy was determined. Results show that the production of 1 kg of beef from this kind of cattle farming contributes a total of 0.52 kg CO2-equivalents to global warming and consumes 227.38 MJ of renewable as well as 24.86 MJ of non-renewable energy. Significant contributions come from the processes "cattle husbandry" (production of fuel), "supply of animal feed" (production of fuel, straw and foil) and "auxiliary processes" (generation of electricity). The other processes are negligible in this context. The environmental impacts of the technical expenditures of such large-scale extensive grazing systems are relatively low compared to the methane emissions arising from cattles' digestion as they are known today. The study additionally outlines potentials to reduce environmental loads and discusses the direct emissions from cattle breeding and the problems of data collection in extensive all-year grazing systems.
Deus D.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg |
Deus D.,University of Dar es Salaam |
Gloaguen R.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg |
Gloaguen R.,Helmholtz Institute Freiberg of Resource Technology |
Krause P.,Thuringer Landesanstalt fur Umwelt und Geologie TLUG
Remote Sensing | Year: 2013
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the water balance in a semi-arid environment with limited in situ data using a remote sensing approach. We focus on the Lake Manyara catchment, located within the East African Rift of northern Tanzania. We use a distributed conceptual hydrological model driven by remote sensing data to study the spatial and temporal variability of water balance parameters within the catchment. Satellite gravimetry GRACE data is used to verify the trends of the inferred lake level changes. The results show that the lake undergoes high spatial and temporal variations, characteristic of a semi-arid climate with high evaporation and low rainfall. We observe that the Lake Manyara water balance and GRACE equivalent water depth show comparable trends; a decrease after 2002 followed by a sharp increase in 2006-2007. Our modeling confirms the importance of the 2006-2007 Indian Ocean Dipole fluctuation in replenishing the groundwater reservoirs of East Africa. We thus demonstrate that water balance modeling can be performed successfully using remote sensing data even in complex climatic settings. Despite the small size of Lake Manyara, GRACE data showed great potential for hydrological research on smaller un-gauged lakes and catchments in similar semi-arid environments worldwide. The water balance information can be used for further analysis of lake variations in relation to soil erosion, climate and land cover/land use change as well as different lake management and conservation scenarios. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Branger F.,IRSTEA |
Kermadi S.,University of Lyon |
Jacqueminet C.,University of Lyon |
Michel K.,University of Lyon |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013
This paper addresses the impact of the source and processing method of land use information for hydrological simulations on the long-term water balance of the Yzeron peri-urban catchment (150km2), located near Lyon, France. A customised version of the distributed hydrological model J2000 was used to perform simulations at a daily time step. Five land use data sets obtained from aerial photographs BDOrtho@IGN and satellites Quickbird and Spot for the year 2008 are compared. The paper presents the methodology for model setup and the simulation results for the main water balance components of the catchment: total runoff at several gauging stations, runoff components, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. The model evaluation against discharge measurements at six locations shows a reasonable agreement between simulated and observed values, in particular for general seasonal variations, low flow periods and simulation of runoff components (surface runoff, interflow and base flow), with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies ranging from 0.25 to 0.51 at the daily time step and 0.46-0.82 at the monthly time step. The comparison of the model outputs for the various land use maps shows that the total discharge is not very sensitive to the data set used (-4.88% to 4.65% at the catchment outlet), except in a small and more densely urbanised sub-catchment for which a significant impact of image resolution on simulated flow is detected (+25.81%). For all gauges, the results also highlight the sensitivity of the modelled flow components, in particular regarding the amount and seasonal dynamics of surface runoff generation (8-44% of total flow at the catchment outlet depending on the data set used). As a conclusion, land use information should be selected and processed with care, with respect to the objectives of a given study, and the sizes and urbanisation rates of the target sub-catchments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Branger F.,IRSTEA |
Kermadi S.,University of Lyon |
Krause P.,Thuringer Landesanstalt fur Umwelt und Geologie TLUG |
Labbas M.,IRSTEA |
And 4 more authors.
iEMSs 2012 - Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society | Year: 2012
This paper addresses the impact of 18 years of urbanization (1990-2008) on the Yzeron meso-scale peri-urban catchment (150 km2), located close to Lyon, France. A simplified version of the distributed hydrological model J2000 was used to perform long term simulations at a daily time step for several land use scenarios. These scenarios were derived from satellite SPOT images from years 1990, 1999 and 2008. The corresponding land use maps were classified into 5 classes depending on the percentage of impervious surfaces and the dominant nonimpervious land use (agriculture or forest). The paper presents the methodology for the model setup and the simulation results for the main water balance components of the catchment: Total runoff, runoff components, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. The results highlight the change of the catchment seasonal response from 1990 to 2008, mainly due to a change of the respective contributions of groundwater flow / surface runoff (+ 92% / - 28%, respectively). Monthly mean summer discharge unexpectedly appears to be higher in summer. It is provided by intermittent surface runoff generated by summer storm events. As surface runoff generated on urban surfaces is likely to carry a wide range of contaminants, this has a potential large impact on water quality.
Precipitation radar and lightning detection - Innovative observation data series for decision making and planning in forestry [Niederschlagsradar und Blitzortung - moderne Beobachtungszeitreihen für Entscheidungen und Planungen im Forstbetrieb]
Frischbier N.,Thuringenforst |
Heyner F.,Thuringer Landesanstalt fur Umwelt und Geologie TLUG
Forstarchiv | Year: 2016
The monitoring network of lightning detection is active and available since more than 20 years. Furthermore, precipitation radar starting to collect measurements in 2001. However, the precipitation radar is subject to modifications, e. g. with regard to the spatial extent of the analysed area with the involvement of other foreign radar sites, with regard to radar-side deficits and composite routines as well as to the basic radar technology (see research radar Hohenpeißenberg, DWD 2015). Time series of precipitation radar, lightning detection and derived GIS products are useful for retrospective mapping of precipitation patterns and extreme moist convection events. Time series are still short, but they get longer every day. Some applications are conceivable in forestry. Therefore, an application dealing with damages to forest roads caused by heavy rainfall during summer is presented. Correlations between these climate data products and the specific risk or the real damage in forestry, however, are not yet proven. Thus, more research is needed to clarify the forest requirement for such climate service data and to register this requirement in time. © DLV GmbH.