Pelletier F.,Research and Development Institute for the Agri Environement IRDA |
Brassard P.,Research and Development Institute for the Agri Environement IRDA |
Godbout S.,Research and Development Institute for the Agri Environement IRDA |
Chretien F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
And 2 more authors.
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2014, ASABE 2014 | Year: 2014
In the Province of Quebec, cow-calves are generally confined in wintering pens (WP) from mid-October to mid-May. However, when the snow melts in spring, high concentrations of pollutants are found in soils, runoff and groundwater. A previous study performed over five winters showed that the combination of a WP and a vegetative filter strip (VFS) may require some modifications in areas of large amounts of precipitation during winter (Pelletier et a/., 2008). The snowmelt in spring is a critical period generating significant amounts of water that were not caught by the VFS. The objective of the project was to develop and validate new concepts of WP in order to reduce the risk of contamination for soil and water. These new concept involve changes to several aspects that should reduce and delay runoff water from the WP. This paper presented the main changes applied to the setup and a comparison of runoff volume and characteristics between this study and the previous one. Preliminary results showed that the changes made to the setup tend to reduce and delay runoff water from the WP until the end of April when the vegetation is growing in the VFS. Settling tanks installed at the exit of the WP reduced and delayed runoff. The effect was more significant at the exit of the VFS where runoff volume decreased by a factor of ten and was delayed until the end of May. The experimentation is currently underway and only a few results from the first winter were available for this paper. Results from the second winter experimentation will help confirm the trends observed during the first winter and enable a more complete analysis. Copyright © (2014) by the American Society of Agricultural & Biological Engineers All rights reserved.
Winter T.,Von Thunen Institute vTI |
Hinz T.,Von Thunen Institute vTI |
Zierke C.,Von Thunen Institute vTI |
Lippmann J.,Sachsisches Landesamt fur Umwelt
Landtechnik | Year: 2012
According to EU and national regulations in Germany layers are kept not any longer in cages. There are alternatives on the market. An assessment of different keeping/management systems for laying hens with regard to individuals' health and environmental protection is required. One open question concerned is the relevance of airborne dust and ammonia. This paper deals with investigations running in two systems for keeping laying hens - aviary and German small group housing system - regarding dust and ammonia concentrations inside the stable and their emission flows. The systems vary in size, stocking density and management. First data on airborne exposure indicate differences between the housing systems investigated. The ammonia concentrations reach from less than 1 ppm to more than 20 ppm and PM4 from 0,1 to 2 mg/m3. Ammonia produced essentially by the birds' faeces. Manure management is one of the most important factors to reduce the concentration of ammonia. Dust emissions are mainly caused by birds' activity which can be influenced by e. g. the light programme.