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Kim T.J.,North Carolina State University | Bullock B.P.,University of Georgia | Wijaya A.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics
Mathematical and Computational Forestry and Natural-Resource Sciences | Year: 2016

This study applied a geostatistical approach to quantify above-ground biomass (AGB) of the Labanan Concession Forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest inventory data collected via line-plot sampling were converted to AGB, and two approaches of estimating the spatial distributions of biomass, the global and stratified approaches, were compared. The global approach does not take local varying structures into account, whereas the stratified approach accounts for the heterogeneity of land cover types. Thus, AGBs estimated from each land cover type were pooled for the stratified approach. Ordinary kriging was performed to predict AGB at unsampled locations. The total estimates of AGB and root mean squared cross-validation errors (RMSCVE) for the global and stratified methods were 13,512,392.2 tons (161.92 ton/ha) and 13,607,205.5 tons (163.05 ton/ha), respectively, for AGB (0.7% difference) and 81.0 ton/ha and 81.2 ton/ha, respectively, for RMSCVE. Considering the different environmental conditions for each land cover type, the stratified method was expected to better capture the spatial structure particular to each land cover type, leading to more accurate estimates of AGB. However, the results suggest the degree of accuracy for the two methods was nearly similar. & 2016 Publisher of the Mathematical and Computational Forestry & Natural-Resource Sciences.

Rosenkranz L.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Seintsch B.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Wippel B.,UNIQUE forestry and land use GmbH Freiburg | Dieter M.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2014

In the context of implementing the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) approximately 17% of the German forest area was designated in "Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)". Amongst these there are many beech forests which were not subject to a special protection status before.Management plans, containing measures for the protection of SACs, are just being developed. These measures may cause restrictions to forest management leading to losses of income. Our study aimed to analyse natural and economic impacts of the implementation of the Habitats Directive which could, e.g. be used as a basis for designing compensation schemes.In discussion with operational managers it became clear that the measures most restrictive to forest enterprises were small-area land set-aside, restrictions in choice of tree-species and maintenance of a sufficient share of mature stands.The impact of those nature protection measures on case-study forest enterprises was evaluated using an excel-based simulation model which enabled the calculation of, e.g., income losses based on enterprise individual data for a given simulation-period.The main factors influencing income losses were age-class distributions, management practices and objectives of forest enterprises. Annual income losses for the enterprises averaged 31 to 39. €/ha. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Kawaletz H.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Molder I.,Energieagentur Region Gottingen E.V. | Annighofer P.,University of Gottingen | Terwei A.,University of Gottingen | And 2 more authors.
Forestry | Year: 2014

Pot experiments, as a complement to field measurements, allow the investigation of plants under controlled conditions without distracting effects of heterogeneous environmental factors. Due to the longevity and larger dimensions of tree species, pot experiments with trees raise more problems than studies with herbaceous plants.Weanalysed 93studiesonpot experiments withwoodyforest speciesandprovideanoverviewof their practical implementation. The literature reviewrevealed that various factors should be taken into account in providing good growing conditions for pot experiments, including pot size, substrate, plant age and origin, and transplanting effects. Many studies did not follow existing recommendations, e.g. an appropriate pot size. Therefore, the transferability of the experimental results to natural conditions is limited and could be improved. We propose that investigation of tree response in pot experiments should be combined with additional measurements undernatural conditions. Unfortunately, manypapers using pot experiments did not provide completeinformation on the experimental set-up, making an evaluation on the quality of pot experiments difficult. We conclude that authors should provide more detailed information on the methodology that can be used to repeat or design future pot experiments. © 2014 Institute of Chartered Foresters. All rights reserved.

Jochem D.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Janzen N.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Weimar H.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2016

The use of wood and wood-based products has positive effects on environmental considerations, e.g., climate change mitigation or the reduction of waste and other emissions. With regard to climate change mitigation, the benefit of wood-based products is based on storage effects and substitution effects. Especially in the German construction sector, large quantities of wood are used. Moreover, in this sector, products often remain in use over several decades. For these reasons the main objective of this paper is to provide information on factors influencing the choice of construction materials in the German construction sector for policy makers and market participants. The chosen method for estimating the interactions between prices of wood-based products, the prices of the associated substitutes, and the use of wood in the construction sector is the calculation of elasticities of demand. The analysis focuses on two product groups: (1) buildings as a whole and (2) different construction materials, such as bricks or sawnwood. In the field of residential and non-residential construction, the current state of knowledge for Germany is for the first time supported and partly quantified by mathematical methods. Non-significant results in the field of residential construction give an indication that the choice of building materials is based on non-quantifiable and statistically non-available factors. Elasticities for non-residential buildings in Germany are estimated for the first time. The estimated values are plausible in size and sign. It is evident that the tested products are substitutes. Hence, relevant information can be derived for market participants and related policies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Bosch M.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Jochem D.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Weimar H.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Dieter M.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2015

This paper presents a physical input-output table (PIOT) that shows the complete wood and paper flow through the economic system of Germany. The PIOT illustrates the wood and paper flow between different sectors and to different types of final use. It can be used both as a monitoring instrument and for scenario analysis. The hypothetical extraction method is applied in order to assess inter-industry linkages and single out key industries. Despite the wide variety of wood-based products and the versatile use of wood, it turns out that there is a surprisingly linear organization of the production system when it comes to the flow of wood and paper through Germany ("throughput economy"). © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hargita Y.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Gunter S.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Kothke M.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics
Land Use Policy | Year: 2015

Brazil was the first country to submit a reference level (RL) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aiming to claim results-based payments for reduced emissions from deforestation in the REDD+ mechanism. This voluntary RL submission has passed an official technical assessment process by the UNFCCC on the accordance of the data and method applied, which was finalised in December 2014.After years of international negotiations this has become possible by the REDD+ framework finally agreed. Although never formally adopted, the rules of procedure of the UNFCCC foresee consensus among the 196 parties to the convention. Due to the wide heterogeneity in national circumstances and capacities between these parties, the decided REDD+ framework represents a compromise, and in some points space for interpretation remains due to a lack of clear definitions. E.g., no internationally standardised method exists for the design of RLs under UNFCCC; rather each country has the possibility to apply its own approach within a given range of requirements. We argue that these nationally designed RLs involve the danger of raising a 'cherry-picking' mentality, which would reduce cost-efficiency of the payments. Especially in the light of the ongoing pressure to fight anthropogenic global climate change, the overall objective of REDD+ should be climate effectiveness. Therefore, apparently contradictory objectives-of integrating as many developing countries as possible, by keeping the barriers low, and of effective emission reductions by persisting on strict rules for national carbon accounting-had to be balanced.According to the technical assessment by the UNFCCC, the submitted Brazilian RL fulfils all formal requirements. However, as implication of the negotiated framework, there remain some questions on the climate effectiveness and the cost-efficiency of the submitted approach, which this viewpoint paper aims to critically reflect.Brazil chose for its present RL design the eligible options of a subnational coverage, with consideration of the activity of deforestation only. But only comprehensive accounting of all activities on national scale can ensure that all potential emissions are accounted for. By the present accounting gap, doubts on climate effectiveness arise. Furthermore, Brazil chose a fixed starting year for historic emissions and did not consider national circumstances, which results in reference emissions of about 1100Mt CO2/a between 2006 and 2010. This potentially profitable RL setting for Brazil raises doubt on the cost-efficiency of the implied REDD+ payment.Whether these problems arising from the four eligible but critical RL options applied by Brazil emerge in other RLs as well, was checked for further five RL proposals submitted up to now. None of these country submissions has passed the technical assessment yet. The submitted approaches for RL design differ among the considered countries but one can see a tendency towards profitable individual RL definitions, similar to the Brazilian RL.From our findings we conclude that individually determined RLs without standardised methods bear the risk of national 'cherry-picking' which can compromise climate effectiveness and cost-efficiency of the whole REDD+ mechanism. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Rosenkranz L.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Seintsch B.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Dieter M.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2015

It is basically assumed that a higher level of domestic wood harvesting leads to a higher level of domestic wood use and thus to an increase of value added in the wood processing industry. However, in the past years, the wood input increased in some wood processing sectors in Germany whereas their value added decreased. Against this background we aimed to decompose changes in input and output in order to isolate the effects of value added and to determine the role of wood as intermediate input of the sawmilling and wood processing industries. We regarded the years 2006 compared to 2002 and 2010 compared to 2006. Based on statistical data, a decomposition method was developed that determines changes in the product price, the intermediate input price, the growth and the structural effect. Furthermore, a special focus was set on the impacts of price and quantity changes of the input of wood-based products. We found out, that the growth effect is connected to the wood input in the sawmilling industry in the considered years. Also, it became apparent that a higher input of wood and wood products does not automatically lead to an increase in value added. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Kothke M.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Schroppel B.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Elsasser P.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2014

This article proposes an approach to one of the most prominent problems for the establishment of a REDD + regime - namely reference level determination. We have developed a standardised approach for the consideration of national circumstances in REDD + reference levels, which applies the global curve of forest cover development as the benchmark for accounting of avoided deforestation. The approach draws on the identification and empirical quantification of a global deforestation curve which was created by applying the forest transition concept (Köthke et al., 2013). By the underlying regression model the most relevant national circumstances were identified as the average of 140 countries. These national circumstances represent the development stages of the individual countries, from which their future forest cover development in the global average can be determined. By applying national data for estimating the corresponding average development the article identifies national reference levels for 86 REDD + target countries which are still in their deforestation phase. It is estimated by how much actual deforestation in each country deviates from the mean deforestation curve; the period considered is 2005-2010. This is the first time a uniform global deforestation pattern was used to determine the consideration of national circumstances in REDD + reference levels. The quantitative results provided here may be an important basis for further policy discussions about reference level determination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Bosch M.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Weimar H.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Dieter M.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2015

In recent years, it has become increasingly popular to consider the forest-based industries as a so-called cluster. The forest cluster includes forestry enterprises as well as a wide range of industries, all engaged in the processing and manufacturing of roundwood as well as of semifinished and finished wood, pulp and paper products. The purpose of this paper was to depict the inter-industry linkages of the German forest cluster with the help of an input–output table. In the past, it was often the case that the various interactions between the different industries of the forest cluster were not fully perceived by industry managers, governmental bodies or associations, probably due to the distorted representation of the forest-based industries in official statistics. In this sense, the present study aimed at providing crucial baseline information for the understanding of this still rather fragmented sector. The disaggregated input–output table shows the various flows of inputs (measured in monetary values) into the productive process and matches them with outputs. Moreover, two exemplary impact analyses are conducted. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Janzen N.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics | Weimar H.,Thunen Institute of International Forestry and Forest Economics
Wood Processing and Furniture Manufacturing Challenges on the World Market and Wood-Based Energy Goes Global - Proceedings of Scientific Papers | Year: 2015

In 2003 the EU proposed the Action Plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) to combat illegal logging. In March 2013 the European Timber Regulation (EUTR) came into effect as a main mechanism of FLEGT. The objective of this study is to quantify the share of all wood and wood-based product imports into the EU to which the EUTR applies. We defined the scope of the wood-based products based on the definition of the forest-based sector and aggregated them to twelve product groups. We then calculated EUTR coverage ratios for three different reference units: import value (Euro), roundwood eq. and wood fibre eq. Our results show that approximately 90% of total imported wood quantities are covered by the EUTR. This means that 6 million m3 wood fibre eq. (17 million m3 roundwood-eq.) not covered by the EUTR were imported into the EU in 2013. Coverage ratios for product groups differ. Typically raw materials have a higher coverage ratio and finished products a lower coverage ratio. The wood not covered by EUTR is highly concentrated on a few commodities like wood charcoal, articles of wood, n.e.s. and printed books and brochures. The regional import structure of the EU differs between total imports and imports that are not covered by the EUTR. Eastern and South-Eastern Asia and Africa are gaining importance when looking at imports not covered by the EUTR.

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