Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology

Hamburg, Germany

Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology

Hamburg, Germany
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Kanisch G.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2017

The concepts of ISO 11929 (2010) are applied to evaluation of radionuclide activities from more complex multi-nuclide gamma-ray spectra. From net peak areas estimated by peak fitting, activities and their standard uncertainties are calculated by weighted linear least-squares method with an additional step, where uncertainties of the design matrix elements are taken into account. A numerical treatment of the standard's uncertainty function, based on ISO 11929 Annex C.5, leads to a procedure for deriving decision threshold and detection limit values. The methods shown allow resolving interferences between radionuclide activities also in case of calculating detection limits where they can improve the latter by including more than one gamma line per radionuclide. The co"mmon single nuclide weighted mean is extended to an interference-corrected (generalized) weighted mean, which, combined with the least-squares method, allows faster detection limit calculations. In addition, a new grouped uncertainty budget was inferred, which for each radionuclide gives uncertainty budgets from seven main variables, such as net count rates, peak efficiencies, gamma emission intensities and others; grouping refers to summation over lists of peaks per radionuclide. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Fraser D.J.,Concordia University at Montréal | Debes P.V.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology | Bernatchez L.,Laval University | Hutchings J.A.,Dalhousie University | Hutchings J.A.,University of Oslo
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Whether and how habitat fragmentation and population size jointly affect adaptive genetic variation and adaptive population differentiation are largely unexplored. Owing to pronounced genetic drift, small, fragmented populations are thought to exhibit reduced adaptive genetic variation relative to large populations. Yet fragmentation is known to increase variability within and among habitats as population size decreases. Such variability might instead favour the maintenance of adaptive polymorphisms and/or generate more variability in adaptive differentiation at smaller population size. We investigated these alternative hypotheses by analysing coding-gene, single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with different biological functions in fragmented brook trout populations of variable sizes. Putative adaptive differentiation was greater between small and large populations or among small populations than among large populations. These trends were stronger for genetic population size measures than demographic ones and were present despite pronounced drift in small populations. Our results suggest that fragmentation affects natural selection and that the changes elicited in the adaptive genetic composition and differentiation of fragmented populations vary with population size. By generating more variable evolutionary responses, the alteration of selective pressures during habitat fragmentation may affect future population persistence independently of, and perhaps long before, the effects of demographic and genetic stochasticity are manifest. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Weichert F.G.,Hamburg University of Applied Sciences | Floeter C.,Hamburg University of Applied Sciences | Meza Artmann A.S.,Hamburg University of Applied Sciences | Kammann U.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

The pollution of the aquatic environment is currently characterised by a large number of contaminants, especially by mixtures of micro-pollutants including neurotoxins. The ecotoxicological consequences of this burden are not yet assessable. Within the present study, a new test method was applied which evaluates behavioural changes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to quantify the neurotoxic effect of selected chemicals. Changes in the frequency of spontaneous tail movements – a parameter of locomotion – occurring during embryogenesis was assessed as parameter for neurotoxic effects. Embryos were exposed in 24-microwell plates to neurotoxic compounds. Behaviour was examined after 24 h of exposure by videotaping and quantifying spontaneous locomotion. Additionally, acute toxicity was determined after 48 h of exposure by utilising the fish embryo toxicity test. Abamectin, emamectin benzoate, chlorpyrifos-oxon and carbamazepine were analysed using both: the new and classic acute test methods. The results showed the neurotoxic effect of the substances. Furthermore, an increased sensitivity compared to acute toxicity data was shown. The aim of the present study, to illustrate the sensitivity and specificity of the established endpoint to reliably assess adverse, neurotoxic effects of compounds on the model organism Danio rerio and to apply a new test method was achieved. Therefore, the present study is a substantial contribution to an effect-based risk assessment of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Marohn L.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology | Marohn L.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Prigge E.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Hanel R.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2014

The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) stock experienced a sharp decline during the last decades and is suffering from massive anthropogenic impacts on inland waters. To evaluate the benefit of management measures and to better understand the contribution of single drainage systems to spawner production, knowledge of the respective silver eel escapement is required. Furthermore, a better understanding of environmental conditions that potentially trigger the onset of spawning migration is needed to reduce anthropogenic mortalities during riverine eel migration. Investigations are also necessary to clarify whether fish protecting devices and bypasses at barriers are functional and truly increase eel survival and escapement rates. In this study, total female silver eel escapement from a northern German drainage system (Schwentine River) was assessed over a period of three consecutive years, and downstream migration patterns were compared to potential environmental triggers. Furthermore, the benefit of two fish bypasses (surface and deep) and a trash rack at the hydropower station for the survival of migrating eels was examined, and the spawner quality of escaping silver eels was determined by analysing lipid content and infection intensities with the swimbladder parasite Anguillicoloides crassus. The results indicate that silver eel escapement from the Schwentine drainage system is far below the estimated values underlying the respective eel management plan, highlighting the necessity of direct migration assessments to validate indirect estimations that include multiple assumptions and uncertainties. Major downstream migration events took place during short time periods in autumn and appear to be influenced by river discharge and water temperatures, suggesting that a precise prediction of escapement events is possible. Regarding spawner quality, fat reserves appear sufficient for escaping silver eels to migrate and spawn. However, high A. crassus prevalence and infection intensities are assumed to further reduce the number of potential spawners. Another matter of concern is the high trash rack mortality at the hydropower station that illustrates the need of fish protecting devices that fulfil eel-specific requirements. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Baltazar-Soares M.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Biastoch A.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Harrod C.,Queen Mary, University of London | Harrod C.,University of Antofagasta | And 9 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2014

Summary Worldwide, exploited marine fish stocks are under threat of collapse [1]. Although the drivers behind such collapses are diverse, it is becoming evident that failure to consider evolutionary processes in fisheries management can have drastic consequences on a species' long-term viability [2]. The European eel (Anguilla anguilla; Linnaeus, 1758) is no exception: not only does the steep decline in recruitment observed in the 1980s [3, 4] remain largely unexplained, the punctual detection of genetic structure also raises questions regarding the existence of a single panmictic population [5-7]. With its extended Transatlantic dispersal, pinpointing the role of ocean dynamics is crucial to understand both the population structure and the widespread decline of this species. Hence, we combined dispersal simulations using a half century of high-resolution ocean model data with population genetics tools. We show that regional atmospherically driven ocean current variations in the Sargasso Sea were the major driver of the onset of the sharp decline in eel recruitment in the beginning of the 1980s. The simulations combined with genotyping of natural coastal eel populations furthermore suggest that unexpected evidence of coastal genetic differentiation is consistent with cryptic female philopatric behavior within the Sargasso Sea. Such results demonstrate the key constraint of the variable oceanic environment on the European eel population. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Prigge E.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Prigge E.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology | Marohn L.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology | Hanel R.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2013

To investigate the extent to which European silver eels Anguilla anguilla, originating from stocking programmes in the Baltic Sea tributaries, effectively contribute to the spawning stock, two hundred and seventy-four formerly stocked A. anguilla. emigrating from the Schwentine River near Kiel, Germany, were tagged with T-Bar anchor tags. A total of 29 Anguilla spp. were recaptured (c. 11%) up to 14months after release. Stocking history of recaptured A. anguilla. was confirmed by otolith microchemistry. Recapture locations were concentrated around the outlet of the Baltic Sea (Danish Belt Sea) with 62% of all recaptures reported here or in the Kattegat. Recaptured Anguilla spp. showed a reduction in both LT and mass (mean±s.d.=-1·5±0·9cm and -125·3±50·1g) while average total fat content remained in the order of values previously reported as high enough to provide energy resources to allow successful completion of the spawning migration (mean±s.d.=28·4±4·4%). The documented mean rate of travel (0·8kmday-1), however, indicated a delay in the target-oriented migration that might be interpreted as a delayed initial migration phase of orientation towards the exit of the Baltic Sea. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Prigge E.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Marohn L.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Marohn L.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology | Oeberst R.,Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research | Hanel R.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2013

A direct monitoring of European silver eel (Anguilla anguilla, L) escapement from rivers and estuaries has been proven to be challenging, and a Europe-wide documentation of escaping silver eel numbers therefore hardly seems realistic. To reinforce management decisions, policy-makers are thus widely reliant on the accuracy of escapement models. A 3-year programme of silver eel escapement monitoring was undertaken to compile model input data and revise an eel population model (German Eel Model II; GEM II) already used in the decision-making process of management authorities. By compiling necessary input data and analysing vital system-specific population characteristics, it was possible to compare the documented silver eel escapement with the modelled potential silver eel escapement. Resulting model predictions were close to actually monitored escapement numbers, which were distinctly lower than reference escapement values for the same freshwater system given in the implementation report of the German Eel Management Plans. Applying different commercial and recreational catch scenarios revealed the sensitivity of the model. The results show the potential of the GEM II and highlight the importance of high-quality input data to use model predictions as the basis for management measures. © 2013 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

Damerau M.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology | Matschiner M.,University of Canterbury | Matschiner M.,University of Basel | Salzburger W.,University of Basel | Hanel R.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2014

Dispersal via pelagic larval stages plays a key role in population connectivity of many marine species. The degree of connectivity is often correlated with the time that larvae spend in the water column. The Antarctic notothenioid fishes develop through an unusually long pelagic larval phase often exceeding 1 year. Notothenioids thus represent a prime model system for studying the influence of prolonged larval phases on population structure in otherwise demersal species. Here, we compare the population genetic structure and demographic history of two sub-Antarctic crocodile icefish species (Chaenocephalus aceratus and Champsocephalus gunnari) from the Scotia Arc and Bouvet Island in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean to delineate the relative importance of species-specific, oceanographic and paleoclimatic factors to gene flow. Based on 7 (C. aceratus) and 8 (C. gunnari) microsatellites, as well as two mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome b, D-loop), we detect pronounced population genetic structure in both species (amova FSTs range from 0.04 to 0.53). High genetic similarities were found concordantly in the populations sampled at the Southern Scotia Arc between Elephant Island and South Orkney Islands, whereas the populations from Bouvet Island, which is located far to the east of the Scotia Arc, are substantially differentiated from those of the Scotia Arc region. Nonetheless, haplotype genealogies and Bayesian cluster analyses suggest occasional gene flow over thousands of kilometres. Higher divergences between populations of C. gunnari as compared to C. aceratus are probably caused by lower dispersal capabilities and demographic effects. Bayesian skyline plots reveal population size reductions during past glacial events in both species with an estimated onset of population expansions about 25 000 years ago. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Kanisch G.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology | Aust M.-O.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology
Biogeosciences | Year: 2013

Fillet samples of marine fish collected from the East/West Greenland currents (GC) and from the Baltic Sea (BS) have been investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry within the regular German monitoring programme. In samples of the second half of 2011, 134Cs traces have been detected that are suggested to originate from the Fukushima fallout that was deposited in March/April 2011 over the northern North Atlantic and accumulated by fish. The radionuclide 134Cs (half-life 2 yr) was indeed detected with quite small activities at about 0.0036 Bq kg-1 w.w. Existing box models describing the transport of Cs within seawater boxes of the northeast Atlantic allowed for estimation of 134Cs contributions from other sources, i.e. from the Chernobyl fallout and from discharges by the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants; both were negligible around Greenland, while for the Chernobyl fallout a small 134Cs background contribution to BS fish was estimated. Model results confirmed the level of 134C measured in BS fish and showed its maximum to have occurred in winter 2011/2012 followed by a continuous decrease. It was also determined that 134Cs activity, but not that of 134Cs, showed a significant negative correlation with sampling depth (150-400 m) of GC fish; this strengthens our Fukushima fallout assumption. As a result, the Fukushima fallout in these sea areas only marginally enhanced (GC: 4%; BS: 0.1%) pre-Fukushima levels of individual dose rates received by human fish consumers; the addition was around 0.001 μSv following the consumption of 10 kg of fish per year, which is not expected to cause concern according to present guidelines for radiation protection. © 2013 Author(s).

Marohn L.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology | Marohn L.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Jakob E.,University of Prince Edward Island | Hanel R.,Thunen Institute of Fisheries Ecology
Journal of Sea Research | Year: 2013

European eel (Anguilla anguilla) recruitment is declining dramatically since the 1980s. Causes for this decline are explained by a combination of environmental changes basically affecting oceanic larval stages and a variety of anthropogenic impacts during the continental phase. Today, evidence is growing that poor silver eel quality has a major impact on reproductive success, implying that habitat quality plays a key role in stock decline. Since eels are frequently moving through a variety of different habitats during their life cycle, a better understanding of the implications of individual diadromous behaviour and habitat choice on spawner quality are crucial for management considerations for a stock recovery. The present study tested whether individual migratory behaviour and habitat choice of European eels affect spawner quality. Therefore, the migratory behaviour of 287 European eels from marine, brackish and freshwater stations in the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and from Northern German inland waters was examined by otolith strontium/calcium analysis. All individuals were classified either as freshwater residents, coastal residents, downstream shifters, upstream shifters or interhabitat shifters. As indicators for eel quality, muscle fat content, infection with the introduced swimbladder nematode Anguillicoloides crassus and body length at onset of spawning migration were assessed. Results indicate that individuals that exclusively inhabited freshwaters had significantly lower muscle fat contents and were more seriously infected with A. crassus than eels that never entered freshwaters. Since high fat contents are considered as prerequisites for a successful transoceanic spawning migration and high A. crassus loads have a negative impact on condition, this study outlines the importance of brackish waters as eel habitats in temperate latitudes. Furthermore, it questions the net benefit of stocking programs for the European eel population, since they include the translocation of eels from coastal waters into freshwaters. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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