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Junker F.,Thunen Institute For Marktanalyse | Gocht A.,Thunen Institute For Betriebswirtschaft | Marquardt S.,Thunen Institute For Betriebswirtschaft | Osterburg B.,Thunen Institute For Landliche Raume | Stichnothe H.,Thunen Institute For Agrartechnologie
German Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2015

Biodiesel production in Europe and Germany relies heavily on rapeseed oil. Thus, the biodiesel industry has become the most important outlet for rapeseed oil. In light of the increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) saving requirements at the European level, this situation may change: according to the default values specified in the current legislation, biodiesel produced from rapeseed oil will not meet GHG saving requirements as of 2017. In this article, we assess the market impacts of the withdrawal of rapeseed oil from the biodiesel industry in Germany and Europe. Simulations with the MAGNET and CAPRI modelling systems indicate a decline in producer prices for rapeseed of approximately 17% in the EU. The area dedicated to rapeseed production will decline by 6%. Rapeseed oil is primarily substituted by imported vegetable oils. Simultaneously, imports of biodiesel from North America, Argentina and Asia are projected to increase. We investigate options to improve the GHG balance of rapeseed biodiesel. We conclude that only a combination of climate-friendly produced fertiliser and efficient conversion processes can provide the necessary GHG emission-savings to meet the EU's sustainability goals after 2017.

Duttmann R.,University of Kiel | Brunotte J.,Thunen Institute For Agrartechnologie | Bach M.,Thunen Institute For Agrarklimaschutz
Landbauforschung Volkenrode | Year: 2013

This study aimed at the quantification of the transportation effort during a silage maize harvest and at the spatial analysis of traffic intensity on and off a field. In the first part of this study we introduce an easy to handle method for estimating the transportation effort during harvest. This method may assist in optimizing the transport distances prior to tillage and estimating the operational costs in advance. The second part of this study focused on the assessment of traffic intensity due to the harvest, using the wheel track area and the number of rolling overs as indicators. We also modeled the spatial patterns of field traffic within a Geographical Information System. It was found that more than 60 % of the field area had been wheeled by the harvester and the transportation vehicles, where two thirds of the total track area had been rolled over more than twice. Moreover the results reveal that some wheel track sections in the headlands and close to the field gate had been rolled over more than 40 times. A considerable track area percentage trafficked at high wheel load is related to the return routes of fully loaded transport vehicles, which can cover about 25 % of the field area. This share could be reduced by adapting the load of the transporters to the actual soil properties or by rearranging the field geometry.

According to Hutjens (2004), mastitis and lesions on limbs are threatening the profitability of dairy farming in the U.S. Similar results are shown by Lührmann (2007) for German dairy farming. Both problems may cause prolonged depression in milk yield - during the subclinical and clinical phase as well as during or after healing. As a consequence, dairy farmers fear that losses exceed the mere veterinary and medical costs and - in sum - diminish or even eat up profits. Calculations assuming 0,5,10,15 and 20 % of permanent depression in performance after mastitis reveal that margins over feed costs are diminished by 250 to 300 Euros. Assuming a reinfection after 50 days, losses can reach up to 500 Euros. However, losses in margin over feed costs by lameness only exceed 100 Euros, if the bis reaches the worst value and the healing process stretches over several weeks.

Clauss M.,Thunen Institute For Agrartechnologie | Springorum A.C.,Institute For Tierschutz Und Nutztierethologie | Hartung J.,Institute For Tierschutz Und Nutztierethologie
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2013

To investigate which groups for airborne microorganisms are typical for the "natural" ambient air concentration in Northen Germany the concentrations of different groups ofairborne microorganisms were determined with different methods (impingement, impaction and florescence microscopy) at three locations (urban, rural, forest) over a period of one year. In addition the dust concentrations and the sizes of the bacteria-containing particles were measured. The concentrations at the different locations differed only marginally. For the microorganisms a clear seasonal course with maxima in summer and minima in winter was observed. Actinomycetes and mold spores were the predominant groups in the air, Staphylococci and Streptococci were found sporadically and pseudomonades, Enterococci and coliforme bacteria were dependent on the method used but were in the same order of magnitude. The total cell counts were one to two orders of magnitude. the total cell counts were one to two orders of magnitude. The dust concentrations were relatively low. Most bacteria were found in the particle size class 6 to 10 μm.

Clauss M.,Thunen Institute For Agrartechnologie | Linke S.,Thunen Institute For Agrartechnologie | Stolz H.,Thunen Institute For Agrartechnologie | Hinz T.,Thunen Institute For Agrartechnologie
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2013

Different various of a measuring hood for bioaerosols onto a porous medium that is used as a virtual filter and flowed through by air were optimized by means of computational fluid dynamics. Paramerers that were kept constant were a square base area with A= 1m2 and a diamerer of the measurement section of d ≤ 0.35m. Parameters that were varied were angle (u) of the hood, the lenght (l) of the measurement section and an actice or passive exhustion. Both the angle of the hood and the kind of exhaustion strongly affected the air velocity profile in the measurement section as well as the pressure drag. In contrast, the geometry with α 45 and l=6d in combination with an active exhaustion were most suitable. The limitaion of use the evaluated systems were at 0.78 m/s exit air velocity out of the filter. At higher exit air velocities hoods with base area should be used.

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