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Curiel L.,Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute | Hynynen K.,University of Toronto
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011

Recently, an in vivo real-time ultrasound-based monitoring technique that uses localized harmonic motion (LHM) to detect changes in tissues during focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) has been proposed to control the exposure. This technique can potentially be used as well for targeting imaging. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of using LHM to detect changes in stiffness and the feasibility of using it for imaging purposes in phantoms and in vivo tumor detection. A single-element FUS transducer (80 mm focal length, 100 mm diameter, 1.485 MHz) was used for inducing a localized harmonic motion and a separate ultrasound diagnostic transducer excited by a pulser/receiver (5 kHz PRF, 5 MHz) was used to track motion. The motion was estimated using cross-correlation techniques on the acquired radio-frequency (RF) signal. Silicon phantom studies were performed to determine the size of inclusion that was possible to detect using this technique. Inclusions were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude and it was possible to depict inclusions as small as 4 mm. The amplitude of the induced LHM was always lower at the inclusions compared with the one obtained at the surroundings. Ten New Zealand rabbits had VX2 tumors implanted on their thighs and LHM was induced and measured at the tumor region. Tumors (as small as 10 mm in length and 4 mm in width) were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude. © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

Pichardo S.,Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute | Sin V.W.,Guided Therapeutics | Hynynen K.,Guided Therapeutics
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011

For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 μg resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization process was executed, but this time using a finite-difference time-difference solution of the Westervelt equation, which is more precise than the multi-layer model but much more time consuming for computation. For six of seven specimens, measurements were carried out on five locations on the calvaria, and for the other specimen three measurements were made. In total, measurements were carried out on 33 locations. Results indicated the presence of dispersion effects and that these effects are different according to the type of bone in the skull (cortical and trabecular). Additionally, both the speed of sound and attenuation showed dependence on the skull density that varied with the frequency. Using the optimal functions and the information of density from the CT scans, the average values (±s.d.) of the speed of sound for cortical bone were estimated to be 2384(±130), 2471(±90), 2504(±120), 2327(±90) and 2053(±40) m s-1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, 1402, 1965 and 2526 kHz, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the speeds of sound were 2140(±130), 2300(±100), 2219(±200), 2133(±130) and 1937(±40) m s-1, respectively. The average values of the attenuation coefficient for cortical bone were 33(±9), 240(±9) and 307(±30) Np m-1 for the frequencies of 270, 836, and 1402, respectively. For trabecular bone, and in the same order of frequency values, the average values of the attenuation coefficient were 34(±13), 216(±16) and 375(±30) Np m -1, respectively. For frequencies of 1.965 and 2.525 MHz, no measurable radiation force was detected with the setup used. © 2011 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute | Date: 2011-11-16

Methods and apparatus are provided for the alignment of an interferometric system. A spatial filter comprising a reflective pinhole is provided at the output of the interferometer, and tilt is measured by a tilt detection subsystem positioned to reimage the pinhole. A shear detection subsystem is positioned to image an offset of the interferometer beams. Tilt and shear offsets are determined by comparing measurements obtained from the tilt and shear subsystems with pre-recorded measurements obtained for an aligned state. The tilt and shear offsets are employed to realign the system using positioning controls corresponding a reduced number of dominant degrees of freedom of the system.

Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute | Date: 2011-09-13

Systems and methods of resetting a blocking-type photoconductive imaging detector are provided. In one embodiment, after having obtained an image, the imaging detector may be reset by applying a reversed bias potential difference and illuminating the imaging radiation detector with photoexcitation radiation. The photoexcitation radiation has a wavelength selected to excite mobile charges within the photoconductive layer and a spatial intensity profile related to the measured image for neutralizing the trapped charges in a spatially compensated manner. In another embodiment, a photoionizing beam is directed onto an x-ray light valve having a liquid crystal layer in contact with a photoconductive layer. The beam passes through an optically transmissive surface of the x-ray light valve and photoionizes a species within the liquid crystal layer, generating mobile charged entities that at least partially neutralize charges trapped at the interface, improving the performance of the x-ray light valve when performing subsequent x-ray imaging.

Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute | Date: 2010-10-01

An optical imaging device which receives an optical collimated input beam, the device having a pair of axicon lenses through which a beam is directed to generate a collimated ring beam, wherein the ring beam is scattered from a substance to generate a return beam, and to bypass a reflector that redirects the return beam to prevent the return beam from interfering with the input beam; and a detector which detects an image projected by the return beam.

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