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Großhansdorf, Germany

Weisshoff H.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Hentschel S.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Zaspel I.,Thuenen Institute of Forest Genetics | Jarling R.,German Research Center for Geosciences | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2014

The closely related to the Pseudomonas orientalis strain Pseudomonas sp. acc. no. JX090307 was isolated from hyphae of the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora alni spp. alni. In in-vitro antagonistic tests, the living bacterium JX090307 and its cell extract showed antibiosis activity against different fungal pathogens of forest tree species, particularly against Verticillium dahliae and some strains of P. alni ssp. alni. Investigating the cell extract of JX090307 by means of LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and -MS/MS techniques, more than 30 cyclic lipodepsipeptids (CLPs) were found. 24 of them belong to a novel group of CLPs named PPZPM. The cyclic lipodepsidecapeptides PPZPMs are composed of a β-hydroxy fatty acid linked to a peptide part comprising 10 amino acids, where 8 of them are organized in a cyclic structure. PPZPMs differ from members of the Viscosin and Amphisin group by the number of amino acids forming the cyclic structure. The two main components, PPZPM-1a and PPZPM-2a, were investigated additionally by means of NMR spectroscopy. Source


Galovic V.,University of Novi Sad | Orlovic S.,University of Novi Sad | Fladung M.,Thuenen Institute of Forest Genetics
IForest | Year: 2015

Soil salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stress in the Vojvodina region (Serbia), and efforts are being undertaken to enhance the salt tolerance of economically important poplar clones. We screened nucleotide diversity in candidate genes (CG) in several poplar clones to search for associations with salt stress tolerance. As plant-specific GRAS/SCL transcription factors (TFs) play a relevant role in abiotic stress resistance, two poplar homologs of GRAS/SCL TFs were chosen to differentiate the species background with respect to salt tolerance. A BLAST search of the Populus trichocarpa genome using the P. euphratica gene GRAS/SCL TF_GH611858 sequence allowed the identification of two putative orthologs on Scaf_5 and Scaf_7, with identities of 100% and 94%, respectively. Primers were designed in shared, identical sequences of Scaf_5 and Scaf_7 to amplify fragments of GRAS/SCL TF orthologs in four salt-tolerant poplar clones economically important to Serbia. The primers spanned regions where single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were present in the P. trichocarpa gene, thereby increasing the probability of distinguishing Scaf_5 and Scaf_7 orthologs in the four clones. Alignments and analyses of the gene fragments revealed that both orthologs were representative of the genetic diversity between different poplar clones, and the identified SNP markers differentiated the four poplar clones with respect to salt tolerance. © SISEF. Source


Bruegmann T.,Thuenen Institute of Forest Genetics | Fladung M.,Thuenen Institute of Forest Genetics
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2013

The genus Populus is classified into six different sections, and depending on the declaration of hybrids, the number of species varies between 22 and 85. Species within one section, and sometimes between sections, are crossable to each other, resulting in many naturally but also artificially produced hybrids. Morphological attributes for a clone characterisation are often difficult to evaluate when different poplar species or even hybrids are crossed; thus, molecular markers are needed to characterise the different species. Taking advantage of the large microsatellite resource developed for Populus trichocarpa, however, amplification of these microsatellite markers in other Populus species either often fails, or in the case of amplification, unrelated genomic regions are amplified. To meet this obvious problem of the species transferability of microsatellite markers, in total, 305 microsatellite loci, mainly from P. trichocarpa but also few from Populus tremuloides and Populus nigra, were tested for their transferability to diverse genotypes of six species belonging to three sections of the genus Populus. Ultimately, 209 microsatellite loci could be amplified with varying sizes in the different species. The PCR products of selected loci were separated in a polyacrylamide gel and sequenced to assure that the expected loci were derived from the database genome of P. trichocarpa. The present results constitute a large study for microsatellite transferability for Populus species. The documented microsatellite loci can be applied to species-, hybrid- and clone-specific diagnostic approaches or as universal markers for comprehensive ecological studies. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Schroeder H.,Thuenen Institute of Forest Genetics | Cronn R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Yanbaev Y.,Bashkir State University | Jennings T.,Oregon State University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica as a reference, we identified 861 variant sites (672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 189 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism) from representative species of three continents (Q. mongolica from Asia; Q. petraea and Q. robur from Europe; Q. alba from North America), and we identified additional chloroplast polymorphisms in pools of 20 individuals each from Q. mongolica (789 variant sites) and Q. robur (346 variant sites). Genome sequences were screened for indels to develop markers that identify continental origin of oak species, and that can be easily evaluated using a variety of detection methods. We identified five indels and one SNP that reliably identify continent-of-origin, based on evaluations of up to 1078 individuals representing 13 white oak species and three continents. Due to the size of length polymorphisms revealed, this marker set can be visualized using capillary electrophoresis or high resolution gel (acrylamide or agarose) electrophoresis. With these markers, we provide the wood trading market with an instrument to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber. Source


Kersten B.,Thuenen Institute of Forest Genetics | Pakull B.,Thuenen Institute of Forest Genetics | Groppe K.,Thuenen Institute of Forest Genetics | Lueneburg J.,Thuenen Institute of Forest Genetics | Fladung M.,Thuenen Institute of Forest Genetics
Plant Biology | Year: 2014

In the dioecious genus Populus, sex determination has been located to chromosome 19. However, despite a high degree of genome collinearity, various Populus species seem to differ with regard to the location of the sex-determining region on the respective chromosome and the apparent heterogametic sex. In this study, the boundaries of the recombination-suppressed, sex-linked region of the male P. tremuloides clone Turesson 141 were localised by genetic mapping using new SNP and InDel markers. The respective region seems to be located in a pericentromeric position. The corresponding P. trichocarpa genome region spans about two million bp and comprises 65 gene loci, which were bioinformatically evaluated for their potential as candidate genes for sex determination. Three putative transcription factor genes and four genes that are potentially involved in flower development processes, e.g. meristem transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase, were identified. Populus tremuloides sequence data of the sex-linked region is required for a final search for candidate genes. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands. Source

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