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Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

The role of the antihypertensive therapy in preventing cognitive disorders in elderly persons without a history of stroke is still a matter of debate. This article focuses on the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive disorders in hypertension and on the impact of antihypertensive treatment in their prevention. Cerebral white matter lesions, caused by small vessel disease and cerebral hypoperfusion, have been found in the majority of elderly hypertensives. They correlate with cognitive disorders, particularly impairments of attention and executive functions. Excessive blood pressure lowering in elderly patients with long-standing hypertension below a certain critical level, may increase the risk of further cerebral hypoperfusion because of disrupted cerebral blood flow autoregulation. As a result, worsening of the cognitive functions could occur, especially in cases with additional vascular risk factors. Five randomized, placebo-controlled trials have focused on the efficacy of antihypertensive treatments in preventing cognitive impairments in elderly patients without a prior cerebrovascular disease. Four of them have not found positive effects. We suggest that repeated neuropsychological assessments and ultrasonography for evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis, as well as cerebral hemodynamics monitoring could adjust the antihypertensive therapy with the aim to decrease the risk of cerebral hypoperfusion and prevent or slow down cognitive decline in elderly hypertensives. Prospective studies are needed to confirm such a treatment strategy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Spitzer M.S.,University Hospital of Tuebingen | Sat M.,University Hospital of Tuebingen | Schramm C.,University Hospital of Tuebingen | Schnichels S.,University Hospital of Tuebingen | And 4 more authors.
Current Eye Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: To analyze the release kinetics and the clinical and histological effects of UV-cross-linked hyaluronic acid as a release-system for the transforming growth factor β-2 antagonist tranilast with anti-phlogistic properties on intraocular pressure after trabeculectomy in an aggressive scarring animal model. Methods: Hyaluronate acid was UV-cross linked and loaded with tranilast. The release of tranilast into a buffered salt solution was assessed spectrophotometrically. Glaucoma filtration surgery, similar to that performed in clinical practice, was performed on chinchilla rabbits. The rabbits were divided in 3 groups. (Group A: trabeculectomy alone, group B: trabeculectomy with a cross-linked hyaluronic acid gel preparation and group C: trabeculectomy with cross-linked hyaluronic gel preparation mixed with tranilast). Antifibrotic efficacy was established by clinical response and histologic examination. Results: The cross-linked gels released tranilast for up to 26 h. The release plotted as a function of the square root of time was consistent with a largely diffusion-controlled release system. Both the gel preparation alone and the gel preparation mixed with tranilast were well tolerated in vivo. No adverse effects such as inflammation, corneal toxicity or blurring of the optical media were observed. The intraocular pressure reached preoperative levels within 9 days after surgery in control animals and group B, but remained significantly reduced (p = 0.00016) in the group with tranilast until day 22. Conclusions: The data of this pilot study suggest that the intraoperative application of UV-crossed linked hyaluronic acid used as a slow release system for tranilast may improve the surgical outcome of glaucoma filtration surgery. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Hadjiev D.I.,Medical University-Sofia | Mineva P.P.,Thracian University
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2013

A transient elevated arterial blood pressure is common in acute ischemic stroke and is often associated with a poor prognosis. The underlying mechanisms of blood pressure elevation are not well understood and its management is still unresolved. This article focuses on pathophysiology and management of elevated blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke. There is evidence that the main causes of a transient blood pressure elevation in acute ischemic stroke are the focal cerebral hypoperfusion and the stress responses with neuroendocrine systems activation. Clinical trials have reported that blood pressure lowering in acute ischemic stroke may have detrimental effect, probably because of impaired cerebral autoregulation. However, quantitative assessment of cerebral perfusion has not been performed during emergency blood pressure reduction in acute ischemic stroke. We suggest that ultrasound carotid artery disease evaluation and cerebral hemodynamics monitoring using bilateral transcranial ultrasonography, during blood pressure management in acute ischemic stroke might contribute to maintaining of an adequate penumbral perfusion and prevent infarct enlargement. Such an approach could individualize the antihypertensive treatment in acute ischemic stroke and improve functional outcome. Prospective studies are needed to confirm such a treatment strategy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Marinova M.H.,Thracian University | Georgiev B.B.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Vasileva G.P.,Bulgarian Academy of Science
Systematic Parasitology | Year: 2015

Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae) is described from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae), collected in the vicinities of Radnevo, Stara Zagora Region, Bulgaria. The new species is differentiated from other members of Diorchis Clerc, 1903 by possessing rostellar hooks with length of 36 µm, a thick-walled cirrus-sac with strong longitudinal muscular fibres in its middle part and a copulatory vagina with two sphincters. Main morphological criteria for distinguishing species of the genus Diorchis are discussed. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Todorova R.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Atanasov A.T.,Thracian University
Natural Product Research | Year: 2015

This review discusses the potential of Haberlea rhodopensis as a food additive. The following are described: plant distribution, reproduction, cultivation, propagation and resurrection properties; extraction, isolation and screening of biologically active compounds; metabolite changes during dehydration; phytotherapy-related properties such as antioxidant potential and free radical-scavenging activities, antioxidant skin effect, antibacterial activity, cytotoxic activity and cancer-modulating effect, radioprotective effect, chemoprotective effect, immunologic effect; present use in homoeopathy and cosmetics, pharmacological and economical importance; perspectives based on the ethnobotanical data for medicinal, cosmetic or ritual attributes. H. rhodopensis showed unique medical and pharmaceutical potential, related to antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, anticancer, radioprotective, chemoprotective and immunological properties. H. rhodopensis extracts lack any cytotoxic activity and could be used in phytotherapy. The metabolic profiling of H. rhodopensis extracts revealed the presence of biologically active compounds, possessing antiradical and other physiological activities, useful for design of in vitro synthesised analogues and drugs. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source

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