Thornton Tomasetti is an American 800+ person structural engineering consulting firm headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1956 as Lev Zetlin & Associates, the 50-year old company has office locations throughout the world.The company has expertise in structural engineering, façade engineering, forensics, renewal, construction engineering, property loss consulting and sustainability. The engineering firm provided the structural design for several of the world's tallest building structures, including the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and Taipei 101 in Taiwan. Other structures designed by the firm include Soldier Field in Chicago, PETCO Park in San Diego, and the Minneapolis Public Library in Minneapolis. Among other architects of note, Thornton Tomasetti has collaborated with Cesar Pelli, Santiago Calatrava, Renzo Piano, and Rafael Vinoly.Thornton Tomasetti works to advance sustainable design and construction practices. About one-fifth of its staff are LEED accredited professionals . Thornton Tomasetti was the first structural engineering company to sign the AIA 2030 Commitment. Wikipedia.
News Article | May 18, 2017
A coalition of 12 architect-engineer-contractor groups in New York state is hoping the third attempt since 2013 to get an emergency responder bill passed and signed into law will be successful. The New York Emergency Responder Act would limit liability of design professionals and other emergency responders hired by authorities to provide assistance during post-disaster search, rescue and recovery operations. Both versions of the bill—Senate 4135, sponsored by Diane J. Savino (D), and Assembly 4241, sponsored by Steve Englebright (D)—are in committee. To be voted on, each version needs to be on the floor of the senate or assembly at least three days in advance of June 15, when the current legislative session ends. “The next two weeks are critical for us,” says Jay Simson, president of the American Council of Engineering Cos. New York. ACEC NY, a coalition member, is spending time educating legislative leadership to help the bills reach the floor. The act states that volunteers or those under contract—individuals or corporations—that render emergency assistance shall “not be subject to suit or claim, nor liable for any personal wrongful death, property damage, economic loss or any other damage or claim … relating to the rendering or furnishing of voluntary or contractual emergency assistance in connection with the disaster or emergency.” The exception to the immunity is “work performed in a manner that constitutes wanton, willful or intentional misconduct, or gross negligence.” The Structural Engineers Association of New York, a coalition member, has been pushing for an emergency responder act for 12 years, in response to events following the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. After 9/11, teams of structural engineers, organized by SEAoNY, spent four months—24/7—at Ground Zero to help assess the structural stability of the debris pile and any remaining structures so that other emergency responders—firefighters, police and contractors—could more safely do their work of search, rescue, recovery and debris removal. New York City had contracted with the engineers as subcontractors to the city’s lead structural firm, Lev Zetlin Associates-Thornton Tomasetti. Beginning in 2006, plaintiffs—at least a third of whom are firefighters and police—filed lawsuits against the city and its contractors, which included 22 structural engineering firms. The number of separate lawsuits filed against each defendant eventually surpassed 30,000. The major complaint was that Ground Zero-area workers were not given proper respiratory equipment and were exposed to thousands of toxins in the air. About 5% of the suits have not been settled. Early on, structural engineers lost legal attempts to be dismissed from the suits, on grounds their services had nothing to do with air quality (ENR 6/25/07 p. 78). “The city, which had a $3-billion captive insurance policy for all the engineers and contractors, said, ‘Don’t worry,’ ” says Joseph F. Tortorella, president of Robert Silman Associates, one of the 22 engineers named in the suits. “I always said, ‘We should be worried,’ ” he adds. Silman has spent more than $100,000 on lawyers to review the suits’ legal documents. “This falls into the category of ‘let no good deed go unpunished,’ ” says Tortorella, who himself has health issues associated with exposure to bad air at Ground Zero. Glenn R. Bell, in 2001 the CEO of Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, hasn’t kept track of how much SGH, also a defendant, has spent on lawyers. After 9/11, the Boston office sent nine engineers to New York City to assist with rapid damage assessment and long-term recovery efforts. SGH had decided “to do the right thing,” knowing its insurance might not cover any lawsuits, says Bell, now a senior principal. “We were in an advisory role, working shoulder-to-shoulder with the fire department and the contractors,” he says. “We were not there to direct work.” Design professionals say the legislation is also needed for the public good. Without limited immunity, most engineers will be reluctant to get involved assisting after the next disaster, they maintain. Tortorella is an exception. “I know I will volunteer again if needed,” he says.
News Article | May 22, 2017
As the second month of the 2017 Major League Baseball season swings into full gear, the Mid-Atlantic Precast Association (MAPA) takes a look at the building of the Washington Nationals Ballpark project, featuring one of their producers, Universal Concrete Products Corporation. Nationals Park, located in Washington, D.C., is home to the Washington Nationals baseball franchise. It was the first professional sports venue to be awarded LEED Silver certification by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). LEED is a building rating system that serves as a nationally-recognized standard for sustainable building design. The Nationals project was completed in 2008. Today, more than 15 professional sports venues have received LEED certification for new construction or existing building renovations. Project Overview In addition to achieving LEED certification, owners of the Nationals franchise wanted a distinctive look for their new ballpark that projected a contemporary, vibrant feeling while still meshing with the limestone of many of the institutional buildings of the city. To achieve this, designers created an exterior façade for the stadium that combines steel, glass, and architectural precast concrete panels. The precast concrete stadium components were produced by Universal Concrete Products Corporation, located in Stowe, PA. Precast Solution The panels, featuring a buff-colored texture that resembles limestone, interface seamlessly with the other materials. They were finished with a range of light to heavy sandblasting to create variety. White cement and local aggregates were used in the mix. The local materials and other attributes contributed to the precast concrete’s factors that helped the building achieve its Silver LEED rating. The panels were manufactured locally, minimized construction waste and provided other benefits. Overall, the building is one of the greenest public facilities in the nation. To view the project photo gallery, visit the Washington Nationals Ballpark project profile on the MAPA website. Project At-A-Glance Location: South Capitol Street and N Street (Washington, D.C.) Precaster: Universal Concrete Products Corporation (Stowe, PA) Owner: District of Columbia Sports & Entertainment Comm. (Washington, D.C.) Architect: HOK / Devroux-Purnell Architects (Washington, D.C.) Engineer: ReSH/Thornton Tomasetti (Washington, D.C.) Contractor: Clark / Hunt / Smoot JV, Clark Construction Group, LLC (Bethesda, MD) LEED: Silver Square Footage: 1.0 million Architectural Precast Elements: 503 precast panels with a range of light to heavy sandblasting About Mid-Atlantic Precast Association The Mid-Atlantic Precast Association (MAPA) is a professional marketing organization committed to the growth and greater profitability of the Precast Industry in the Mid-Atlantic region. Founded in 1978, MAPA is comprised of 13 prestressed/precast producer member firms located throughout the Mid-Atlantic States, including New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia and Washington, D.C. The organization is closely associated with the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI) and has over 50 associate member companies that produce a variety of concrete industry related products. For more information, visit http://www.mapaprecast.org.
News Article | May 24, 2017
A new web-based, structural-engineering BIM collaboration platform is providing its developers with a few surprises about how the product is being used, with more small projects loaded than expected. The Combine, an Atlanta-based software firm, developed Konstru in partnership with engineering firm Thornton Tomasetti’s technology incubator TTWiiN, which supplied the industry expertise. After a beta launch this spring, Combine co-founder and partner K.P. Reddy says, “What we’re really learning is that, although we expected it would solve a lot of complicated, hard problems, it’s being used for a lot of simple problems a lot of the market is dealing with. We thought adoption would be on the biggest, most complicated projects, but we’ve seen plenty of smaller and midsize [projects], like schools and office buildings.” The Combine provides seed-stage expertise to develop and commercialize new technologies. It launched Konstru as a new “portfolio company” through the partnership with Thornton Tomasetti. In the first half of 2017, the team plans to spin off five companies, each of which will seek Series A investor funding. Konstru was the first. Reddy says Konstru is a web-based platform that lets engineers collaborate via browser while letting them continue to use the tools they are accustomed to, such as Microsoft Excel, Autodesk Revit, Trimble’s Tekla, Bentley’s RAM Structural System, Grasshopper, and CSI’s ETABS and SAP2000. “Konstru is neutral. We’re the glue in the middle,” says Reddy. Serving smaller firms and projects is a good market to land in “because those companies are largely ignored,” Reddy adds. “Small firms get priced out.” Konstru is competing with Autodesk’s BIM 360 portfolio of real-time design collaboration tools and especially BIM 360 Glue, which is seeing increased adoption, says Sarah Hodges, director of the construction business line for Autodesk. The industry is “waking up to this notion” of digitizing construction, she says. Ricardo Khan, Sr. Director of Project Solutions at Mortenson Construction, says his team investigated Konstru and predicts Konstru “will be competing with Autodesk BIM 360 platform, specifically around [Autodesk’s] Glue application and the services Autodesk is building around BIM 360." Konstru is optimized for structural engineers and contractors especially with distributed teams. "It is always interesting to see new solutions emerge on the market to drive competition,” Khan says. A 2016 survey by the Associated General Contractors of America and Sage Group found that 63% of construction businesses that use or are planning to use cloud-based platforms are doing so to improve access to information from any location, although many respondents noted that technical advances with 4D and 5D modeling tools, among others, are outpacing improvements in collaboration and communications.
Naugle M.,Thornton Tomasetti
Structures and Architecture - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Structures and Architecture, ICSA 2016 | Year: 2016
This paper presents a collection of web based technologies designed to enhance the collaboration between architecture, engineering, construction, and owner (AECO) project teams. With advances in digital design, documentation, and communication methods in recent years - a need has developed for better integration of the often disparate digital workflows of each team. By utilizing web based frameworks and custom software development, bespoke applications may be developed that enable project teams to rapidly share and discuss design intent. The nature of the projects discussed will center around two common themes: rapid communication between individuals operating in different disciplines of a collaborative project and increasing the design space able to be studied during the design phases of a project. The case studies will highlight how utilizing web technologies may alter the stream of information across disciplines, changing how we collaboratively design and engineer buildings. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, London.
News Article | October 29, 2016
Reflecting its growth and global presence across a wide range of market sectors, award-winning architecture and interior design firm CetraRuddy has announced several promotions of key team members. Each has played an integral part in the firm's design excellence and expertise in project delivery. Two team members, Branko Potocnik, NCIDQ, and Kevin Lee, have been named as Associate Principals. Lindsey Doren, RA, LEED AP, and Maria Clironomos, LEED AP, have been named Associates of the firm. “These practitioners represent a new generation of leadership in architecture and interiors for CetraRuddy, and their combined experience underscores the value we add for all our clients,” said Nancy J. Ruddy, co-founding principal of the firm. “These are talented design professionals who understand the importance of a holistic, comprehensive, and thoughtful analytic approach to the design and construction process. Their unique design sensitivity and wide range of skills reflect not only the diversity of our 100 person practice but also our continued commitment to resourcefully meeting client objectives.” These promotions acknowledge the four professionals’ roles as emerging leaders in the firm who successfully embrace its values, encourage team building and the mentoring of others in their areas of expertise, and consistently collaborate with clients in a meaningful way. Ruddy added, "We are proud to recognize the importance that Branko, Kevin, Lindsey and Maria play both within the firm, and within our professional community. They are all committed to design innovation, technical excellence and client mission. Architecture and interior design are both team sports, and without the best and the brightest people contributing and committed to our firm mission, we would not be able to create the sensitive, meaningful projects that are our hallmark." With over 15 years of experience designing complex and highly refined residential and mixed-use buildings, Kevin Lee is known as a talented, resourceful designer and zoning expert with exceptional problem-solving skills. Lee's innovative design solutions are grounded in an analytic approach to program, typology, context and integration of technology. He is committed to context and authenticity while creating buildings and spaces that inspire. His expertise in all phases of a project, from zoning, concept design, planning and construction detailing make him an important collaborator with co-founding principal, John Cetra, and other members of the CetraRuddy team. Kevin has played meaningful roles in CetraRuddy residential and hospitality projects including the renovation and conversion of Walker Tower, and two new residential towers in Manhattan and Brooklyn. In his expanded role as Associate Principal at CetraRuddy, Kevin joins the 10-member Executive Committee, which provides leadership strategy and direction for the 100-person firm. Prior to joining CetraRuddy in 2001, Kevin Lee served as a senior architect at Richard Meier & Partners Architects. Lee has a Master of Architecture at Columbia University’s School of Architecture with prior studies at University of California, Berkeley’s College of Letters and Science. With more than 25 years of international experience, Branko Potocnik is a Senior Interior Architect and has been a core member of the CetraRuddy design team for over a decade. Mr. Potocnik has extensive experience with high-concept hospitality projects, including hotels, restaurants, spas and retail. He also brings his hospitality expertise and viewpoint to CetraRuddy’s residential practice. His extraordinary design talent and insistence on excellence are evident in all phases of his projects; Branko expands the boundaries of project briefs and creates environments based on form and space that integrate with an innovative use materials. Mr. Potocnik collaborates closely with firm co-founder Nancy J. Ruddy on the advancement of engaging hospitality projects. With both an educational and professional background in Belgrade, Serbia, followed by seven years practicing in Toronto, Canada, Branko brings a global perspective that animates the sensitivity to projects based in authenticity and design integrity. At CetraRuddy, Mr. Potocnik has played key roles in projects in England, Saudi Arabia and throughout the United States. His hospitality projects include innovative and market-making restaurants such as SushiSamba and Duck&Waffle in London, the Galleria Hotel and Restaurants in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, numerous restaurants in Miami and projects for BLT Steak and Marriott in New York City. In addition to his hospitality work, Branko has also been a key member of project teams for CetraRuddy's cultural projects, including the award-winning Lincoln Square Synagogue in Manhattan. Prior to joining CetraRuddy, Potocnik had his own practice in Belgrade, and has worked in Toronto and at MR Architecture + Décor in Manhattan. He has a Bachelor of Interior Architecture in the Faculty of Applied Arts and Design from the University of Arts in Belgrade. An accomplished Project Architect and Project Manager and member of CetraRuddy's BIM Advisory Committee, Lindsey Doren has led highly complex, large-scale projects. Known for her commitment to systems integration, project constructability and technical excellence, she is also respected for her ability to ensure that design integrity is maintained throughout the design and construction process. Doren is a mature resource for the firm in areas such as zoning, building codes, accessibility and multi-family residential standards. Since joining the CetraRuddy team over three years ago, she has seen the completion of a number of major residential projects including a 298-unit, two-building residential complex in Manhattan’s Hell’s Kitchen neighborhood, a residential conversion in midtown Manhattan, and an adaptive reuse project of over 470,000 square feet in lower Manhattan. She has also played a key role on a 760,000-square-foot, 720-unit multi-family residential building in Brooklyn. Doren is a registered architect and a graduate of the Syracuse University School of Architecture, where she earned a Bachelor of Architecture degree. She is also an active participant in the women in architecture committee for the AIA NY Chapter. With 15 years of experience as a professional in the architectural field, Maria Clironomos is an accomplished designer and project manager. Ms. Clironomos’s expertise and technical acumen extends across a broad spectrum of typologies, from residential and commercial to municipal, civic and infrastructure works. Her experience in all phases of a project from zoning to planning and construction detailing affords her the ability to integrate complex design elements into coherent and rational solutions. She is well respected within the firm for her skill at interfacing and coordinating with clients, consultants, contractors and other project team members, and she serves as a strong mentor to other members of her design teams. Since joining CetraRuddy, Clironomos’s work has included major residential projects, most recently a 250-unit building in Brooklyn, a 298-unit complex in Hell’s Kitchen in Manhattan, and a large Upper West Side multifamily conversion, also in Manhattan. Maria serves on CR's BIM Advisory Committee. Prior to joining CetraRuddy, she worked with Dattner Architects and at Thornton Tomasetti. Clironomos studied at the New York Institute of Technology, where she earned a Bachelor of Architecture degree. For more information and images, please contact Chris Sullivan, (914) 462-2096. Established in 1987, CetraRuddy is an international award-winning architecture, planning and interior design firm driven by design excellence and the desire to create one-of-a-kind architectural experiences. Intellectually crafted projects are developed with a unique design sensitivity, resourcefulness and commitment to client objectives. Throughout the United States and abroad, CetraRuddy applies a problem-solving approach to projects across various sectors including commercial, residential, hospitality, corporate workplace, education and cultural. Seven principals and a staff of 105 talented professionals contribute their sophisticated understanding of programming, planning, technology and construction to each of the firm’s projects, developing technically excellent and innovative designs and providing an unparalleled level of service.. More at http://www.cetraruddy.com.
News Article | April 22, 2016
Earth Day 2016 will be a truly historic event. At the United Nations in New York City, more than 150 countries will sign the Paris Agreement that was forged at COP21. The signing by so many, this quickly, is unprecedented. By signing the agreement, countries large and small, rich and poor, will give their consent to be bound and the agreement will “enter into force.” A strong global climate agreement and the transition to a low-carbon economy are in the best interests of the global economy and future generations. We are proud to stand alongside over 100 other companies in formally welcoming the Paris Agreement, congratulating world leaders on reaching this ambitious climate change accord and encouraging timely implementation of the climate commitments laid out in the sgreement. We are pleased to be joined in the congratulatory statement and call for a “Low Carbon USA” by USGBC members including Autodesk, Colgate Palmolive, Dupont, Enernoc, General Mills, HP, Hilton, JLL, Johnson & Johnson, Kingspan, Mortenson Construction, National Grid, Nike, Pacific Gas & Electric, Perkins + Will, Philips, Schneider Electric, Sealed Air, Starbucks, Thornton Tomasetti and Vermont Energy Investment Corporation. Across the globe a majority of people—and government officials—now recognize the threat of climate change. Science, education, media and increasingly severe natural disasters have made this real. But that awareness alone is unlikely to have enabled the agreement. The upsurge in implemented clean energy and energy efficiency has been critically important in showing that decarbonization is a real option and can be achieved hand in hand with a strong economy and necessary development. To get there, governments have led by example and flexed policy levers to support research and development (R&D) and drive new markets; the finance world has responded with record-breaking investment; corporations have responded with innovative technologies and bringing ideas to scale. Historic as it is, the Paris Agreement is a starting point for the accelerated transformation we need. We recognize that the hard work has now only just begun. We must now focus our efforts and attention on the agreement’s proper implementation. Governments will need to boost R&D and adopt more reaching policies, such as the Clean Power Plan; more investors will need to prioritize clean energy and sustainable attributes in their portfolios; and businesses will need to keep innovating and putting solutions into the marketplace. And closer to home, each of us has a role, as a citizen and voter, and in our own lives. Wherever you fit in, all of us have a role to fulfill. For tomorrow, let’s pause to appreciate the historic moment, and get back to work. We can’t afford to waste any more time.
News Article | December 16, 2016
NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Thornton Tomasetti, the international engineering firm responsible for some of world’s most prominent construction projects, has partnered with The Combine to commercialize technologies under its internal innovation engine, TTWiiN. TTWiiN is a first-of-its-kind technology accelerator established to drive innovation in the Architecture / Engineering / Construction (AEC) industry and beyond. Together with The Combine, TTWiiN plans to launch five of its portfolio organizations as separate companies in the first half of 2017. Since its founding in 1949, Thornton Tomasetti’s innovations have shaped the building industry. Its TTWiiN accelerator embraces an innovate-to-thrive philosophy, aiming for continuous innovation both inside the Thornton Tomasetti organization and for the betterment of others. The Combine fills the gap that often exists as start-up organizations transition from within an accelerator to stand-alone companies. TTWiiN’s most promising spin-outs will have access to The Combine’s entrepreneurial leaders in the form of a “go team.” This ecosystem of relevant expertise, capital access and other resources provide the TTWiiN spin-out companies the shortest path to achieving Series A funding or other measures of success. “Our collaboration with The Combine provides the best of both worlds,” said Thomas Z. Scarangello, P.E., chairman and CEO, Thornton Tomasetti. “It enables Thornton Tomasetti to continue driving industry-leading innovation by focusing on our core business, while The Combine’s expert team helps us efficiently commercialize our technologies in the AEC industry and beyond.” Grant McCullagh, Thornton Tomasetti Board of Directors member, added “As our industry continues in an accelerated sea-change on the back of wide-ranging new technologies, it’s exciting to see TTWiiN and The Combine emerge as true hands-on leaders, driving significant and impactful new technologies and companies to market.” “A major challenge for any startup CEO is the many roles they have to play beyond technologist. We know firsthand how complicated it is to successfully master these roles while simultaneously founding a new company,” said K.P. Reddy, Co-Founder and Partner, The Combine. “The Combine brings a fresh approach as an embedded external resource for startup leadership. We deliver a shortest-path-to-success model to commercialize IP and spin-out successful ventures. We look forward to working with Thornton Tomasetti to help bring TTWiiN’s portfolio companies to market.” The TTWiiN technologies that will launch as five new companies in 2017 include: Thornton Tomasetti is a leader in engineering design, investigation and analysis serving clients worldwide on projects of all sizes and complexity. Through its 10 complementary practices, Thornton Tomasetti addresses the full life cycle of a structure. Our projects include the tallest buildings and longest spans to the restoration of prized historic properties. Thornton Tomasetti comprises more than 1,200 engineering, architecture, sustainability and support professionals who collaborate from offices across North America and in Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East. The Combine is a team of entrepreneurial leaders who work with enterprises to identify, vet and commercialize technology-based ventures. Unlike traditional incubators, accelerators, venture capitalists or management consultants, The Combine brings the best elements of each in the form of a “go team” that taps its curated ecosystem of leaders, expertise, capital access and other resources along with an experience-led methodology to deliver the shortest path to success. For more information, visit www.thecombine.co.
Ganesan K.,Thornton Tomasetti |
Moen C.D.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Journal of Constructional Steel Research | Year: 2012
This manuscript summarizes recent work to determine if the LRFD resistance factor for cold-formed steel compression members can be increased above its current value of 0.85. An experimental database of 675 concentrically loaded columns with plain and lipped C-sections, plain and lipped Z-sections, hat sections and angle sections, including members with holes, was compiled. The predicted strength of each specimen was calculated with the American Iron and Steel Institute's Main Specification and the Direct Strength Method, with the Direct Strength Method making more accurate strength predictions, especially for columns with partially effective cross sections. The LRFD resistance factor, calculated with a first order second moment reliability approach, was consistent with that currently specified in the code for both the Main Specification and the Direct Strength Method. Capacity predictions of columns failing by the distortional buckling limit state were more accurate than columns failing by global buckling or local-global buckling interaction. The test-to-predicted strength ratios for single angle columns were highly variable, with capacity predictions becoming excessively conservative with increasing global slenderness. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
News Article | December 20, 2016
NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Thornton Tomasetti, the international engineering firm, announces that it has entered into an agreement to acquire Swallow Acoustic Consultants Limited (SACL), a specialist in acoustics, noise and vibration control engineering based in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. The addition of Swallow will bolster Thornton Tomasetti’s Structural Engineering and Forensics practices as well as its Canadian presence. The deal is scheduled to close in early 2017. Terms of the transaction were not disclosed. “For nearly 30 years, Swallow has been our go-to partner for vibration issues. Through our close collaboration on many diverse projects, we have built a strong working relationship based on mutual respect and a shared commitment to professional excellence. This combination of our complementary services will help us build upon our leadership position and provide better value to our clients.” “Teaming up with Thornton Tomasetti will allow us to serve current and future clients in new and innovative ways. We look forward to sharing our considerable experience in the acoustics, noise and vibration control fields with Thornton Tomasetti’s 1,200 professionals.” Thornton Tomasetti is a leader in engineering design, investigation and analysis serving clients worldwide on projects of all sizes and complexity. Through its 10 complementary practices, Thornton Tomasetti addresses the full life cycle of a structure. We have supported clients working in more than 50 countries, with projects that include the tallest buildings and longest spans to the restoration of prized historic properties. Thornton Tomasetti comprises more than 1,200 engineering, architecture, sustainability and support professionals who collaborate from offices across North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East.
News Article | December 20, 2016
NEW YORK, Dec. 20, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Thornton Tomasetti, the international engineering firm, announces that it has entered into an agreement to acquire Swallow Acoustic Consultants Limited (SACL), a specialist in acoustics, noise and vibration control engineering based in Mississauga,...