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Johnson W.R.,Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory | Fedor D.,Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory | Singhal S.,Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery | Year: 2014

This compares outcome measures of current pectus excavatum (PEx) treatments, namely the Nuss and Ravitch procedures, in pediatric and adult patients. Original investigations that stratified PEx patients based on current treatment and age (pediatric = 0-21; adult 17-99) were considered for inclusion. Outcome measures were: operation duration, analgesia duration, blood loss, length of stay (LOS), outcome ratings, complications, and percentage requiring reoperations. Adult implant patients (18.8%) had higher reoperation rates than adult Nuss or Ravitch patients (5.3% and 3.3% respectively). Adult Nuss patients had longer LOS (7.3 days), more strut/bar displacement (6.1%), and more epidural analgesia (3 days) than adult Ravitch patients (2.9 days, 0%, 0 days). Excluding pectus bar and strut displacements, pediatric and adult Nuss patients tended to have higher complication rates (pediatric - 38%; adult - 21%) compared to pediatric and adult Ravitch patients (12.5%; 8%). Pediatric Ravitch patients clearly had more strut displacements than adult Ravitch patients (0% and 6.4% respectively). These results suggest significantly better results in common PEx surgical repair techniques (i.e. Nuss and Ravitch) than uncommon techniques (i.e. Implants and Robicsek). The results suggest slightly better outcomes in pediatric Nuss procedure patients as compared with all other groups. We recommend that symptomatic pediatric patients with uncomplicated PEx receive the Nuss procedure. We suggest that adult patients receive the Nuss or Ravitch procedure, even though the long-term complication rates of the adult Nuss procedure require more investigation. © 2014 Johnson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Johnson W.R.,Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory | Fedor D.,Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory | Singhal S.,Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory
Annals of Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2013

Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital abnormality of the chest wall. It may lead to adverse psychosocial development and preoccupation with a negative body image. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive approach for improving these patients' body image. The most dangerous complication is cardiac perforation from the insertion of the introducer. Our technique modifies this procedure to include a small subxiphoid incision and a novel sternal lift system that elevates the sternum. This facilitates the insertion of the introducer and placement of the pectus bar(s), and it reduces the risk of intraoperative cardiac perforation. © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Source

Fedor D.,Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory | Johnson W.R.,Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory | Singhal S.,Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratory
Surgical Oncology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To date, few large-scale original studies have focused specifically on local recurrence following curative lung cancer surgery. This review seeks to consolidate and analyze data from these studies regarding local recurrence incidence, risk factors, salvage treatments, and outcomes to increase awareness in the Oncology community and to spark new research in this area. Methods: PubMed literature was searched for large-scale cohort studies involving recurrence following lung cancer surgery. Studies with a primary focus on local recurrence and studies that examined overall recurrence but provided relevant numerical data on local recurrence were included. Each chosen study's methods were critically analyzed to reconcile as best as possible large differences in reported results across the studies. Results: Up to 24% of patients recur locally following lung cancer surgery. Risk of local recurrence increases with the stage of the primary cancer, but even stage I patients experience local recurrence up to 19% of the time. Overall survival time following local recurrence varies widely across studies, from 7 to 26 months, and may be related to frequency of follow-up visits. Salvage therapy appears to increase survival time. However, estimates of this increase vary widely, and measurements of benefits of the various salvage options are confounded by lack of control of subjects' condition at the time of salvage therapy administration. Conclusions: Local recurrence following lung cancer surgery is a significant problem warranting additional research. At present, data on this topic is scarce. We recommend initiation of additional large-scale studies to clearly define the parameters of local recurrence in order to provide useful guidance to clinicians. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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