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Takezawa K.,Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center | Pirazzoli V.,Yale University | Arcila M.E.,Thoracic Oncology Service | Nebhan C.A.,Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center | And 12 more authors.
Cancer Discovery

EGF receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers eventually become resistant to treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). The combination of EGFR-TKI afatinib and anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab can overcome acquired resistance in mouse models and human patients. Because afatinib is also a potent HER2 inhibitor, we investigated the role of HER2 in EGFR -mutant tumor cells. We show in vitro and in vivo that afatinib plus cetuximab signifi cantly inhibits HER2 phosphorylation. HER2 overexpression or knockdown confers resistance or sensitivity, respectively, in all studied cell line models. FISH analysis revealed that HER2 was amplifi ed in 12% of tumors with acquired resistance versus only 1% of untreated lung adenocarcinomas. Notably, HER2 amplifi cation and EGFR T790M were mutually exclusive. Collectively, these results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKIs and provide a rationale to assess the status and possibly target HER2 in EGFR -mutant tumors with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. SIGNIFICANCE: Because all EGFR -mutant lung adenocarcinomas eventually develop resistance to TKI therapy, understanding mechanisms of acquired resistance may improve clinical outcomes. These results implicate HER2 as a novel protein involved in the sensitivity or resistance of EGFR -mutant lung cancer and provide a rationale to assess the status of and possibly target HER2 in such tumors. ©2012 AACR. Source

Yu H.A.,Thoracic Oncology Service | Huang J.,Thoracic Service | Rimner A.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Paik P.,Thoracic Oncology Service | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology

BACKGROUND: Development of acquired resistance limits the utility of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for the treatment of EGFR-mutant lung cancers. There are no accepted targeted therapies for use after acquired resistance develops. Metastasectomy is used in other cancers to manage oligometastatic disease. We hypothesized that local therapy is associated with improved outcomes in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR TKI. METHODS: Patients who received non-central nervous system local therapy were identified by a review of data from a prospective biopsy protocol for patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR TKI therapy and other institutional biospecimen registry protocols. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were identified, who received elective local therapy (surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation, or radiation). Local therapy was well tolerated, with 85% of patients restarting TKI therapy within 1 month of local therapy. The median time to progression after local therapy was 10 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2-27 months). The median time until a subsequent change in systemic therapy was 22 months (95% CI: 6-30 months). The median overall survival from local therapy was 41 months (95% CI: 26-not reached). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR-mutant lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR TKI therapy are amenable to local therapy to treat oligometastatic disease when used in conjunction with continued EGFR inhibition. Local therapy followed by continued treatment with an EGFR TKI is well tolerated and associated with long PFS and OS. Further study in selected individuals in the context of other systemic options is required. Copyright © 2013 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Source

Kadota K.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Kadota K.,Kagawa University | Yoshizawa A.,Shinshu University | Motoi N.,Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology

According to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification, the lepidic predominant pattern consists of 3 subtypes: adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and nonmucinous lepidic predominant invasive adenocarcinoma. We reviewed tumor slides from 1038 patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma, recording the percentage of each histologic pattern and measuring the invasive tumor size. Tumors were classified according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification: 2 were AIS, 34 MIA, and 103 lepidic predominant invasive. Cumulative incidence of recurrence (CIR) was used to estimate the probability of recurrence. Patients with AIS and MIA experienced no recurrences. Patients with lepidic predominant invasive tumors had a lower risk for recurrence (5-y CIR, 8%) than nonlepidic predominant tumors (n=899; 19%; P=0.003). Patients with >50% lepidic pattern tumors experienced no recurrences (n=84), those with >10% to 50% lepidic pattern tumors had an intermediate risk for recurrence (n=344; 5-y CIR, 12%), and those with ≤10% lepidic pattern tumors had the highest risk (n=610; 22%; P<0.001). CIR was lower for patients with ≤2 cm tumors than for those with >2 to 3 cm tumors (for both total and invasive tumor size), with the difference more pronounced for invasive tumor size (5-y CIR, 13% vs. 21% [total size; P=0.022] and 12% vs. 27% [invasive size; P<0.001]). Most patients with lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma who experienced a recurrence had potential risk factors, including sublobar resection with close margins (≤0.5 cm; n=2), 20% to 30% micropapillary component (n=2), and lymphatic or vascular invasion (n=2). It therefore may be possible to identify lepidic predominant adenocarcinomas that carry a low or high risk for recurrence. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Janjigian Y.Y.,Gastrointestinal Oncology Service | Zakowski M.F.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Ladanyi M.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Pao W.,Vanderbilt University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology

Background: Patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation derive clinical benefit from treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Whether treatment with TKI improves outcomes in patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma and EGFR mutation is unknown. Methods: Data were analyzed from a surgical database of patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR exon 19 or 21 mutations. In a multivariate analysis, we evaluated the impact of treatment with adjuvant TKI. Results: The cohort consists of 167 patients with completely resected stages I to III lung adenocarcinoma. Ninety-three patients (56%) had exon 19 del, 74 patients (44%) had exon 21 mutations, and 56 patients (33%) received perioperative TKI. In a multivariate analysis controlling for sex, stage, type of surgery, and adjuvant platinum chemotherapy, the 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 89% for patients treated with adjuvant TKI compared with 72% in control group (hazard ratio = 0.53; 95% confidence interval: 0.28-1.03; p = 0.06). The 2-year overall survival was 96% with adjuvant EGFR TKI and 90% in the group that did not receive TKI (hazard ratio: 0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.26-1.51; p = 0.296). Conclusions: Compared with patients who did not receive adjuvant TKI, we observed a trend toward improvement in DFS among individuals with resected stages I to III lung adenocarcinomas harboring mutations in EGFR exon 19 or 21 who received these agents as adjuvant therapy. Based on these data, 320 patients are needed for a randomized trial to prospectively validate this DFS benefit. Copyright © 2011 The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Source

Yu H.A.,Thoracic Oncology Service | Yu H.A.,New York Medical College | Arcila M.E.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Hellmann M.D,Thoracic Oncology Service | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Oncology

Background: EGFR T790M is the most common mutation associated with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Baseline EGFR T790M mutations in EGFR TKI-naïve patients have been reported, but the frequency and their association with response to EGFR TKIs remain unclear. Patients and methods: The frequency of baseline EGFR T790M as detected by routine molecular genotyping was determined by reviewing clinical results obtained at our institution from 2009 to 2013. We also collected outcome data for treatment with EGFR TKIs. Results: To define the incidence of EGFR T790M, we reviewed 2774 sequentially tested patients with lung cancer who underwent molecular testing using a mass spectrometry-based assay, and 11 (0.5%) had baseline EGFR T790M. Compiling results from several molecular techniques, we observed EGFR T790M in tumors from 20 patients who had not previously been treated with an EGFR TKI. In all cases, EGFR T790M occurred concurrently with another EGFR mutation, L858R (80%, 16/20), or exon 19 deletion (20%, 4/20). Two percent of all pre-treatment EGFR-mutant lung cancers harbored an EGFR T790M mutation. Thirteen patients received erlotinib monotherapy as treatment for metastatic disease. The response rate was 8% (1/13, 95% confidence interval 0%-35%). For the patients who received erlotinib, the median progression-free survival was 2 months and the median overall survival was 16 months. Conclusions: De novo EGFR T790M mutations are rare (<1%) when identified by standard sensitivity methods. TKI therapy for patients with baseline EGFR T790M detected by standard molecular analysis has limited benefit. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

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