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Port Glasgow, United Kingdom

Ambury R.F.,University of Manchester | Merry C.L.R.,University of Manchester | Ulijn R.V.,Thomas Graham Building
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

We demonstrate sugar functionalised hydrogel surface coatings which enable the retention of hepatocyte-specific cell function during in vitro culture. The materials were designed to exploit a unique characteristic of hepatocyte biology, with β-galactose moieties displayed to allow cellular adhesion via the specific asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-R) expressed on hepatocyte cell surfaces. Polyethylene glycol acrylamide hydrogel (PEGA) was modified with a galactose containing ligand, lactobionic acid (LA) with d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) used as a non-ASGP-R binding control. FT-IR analysis of the resultant gels revealed that the sugars had been covalently incorporated into the material. Fluorescence labelling was used to quantify the degree of saccharide integration. Cell culture experiments showed that hepatocytes attached preferentially to sugar containing gel coatings, when compared to non-functionalised PEGA controls. It was observed that cells on the LA and GlcA containing surfaces were more metabolically active, compared to controls, and proliferated to a monolayer by day 7 in culture and maintained some characteristics of hepatocyte functionality, such as urea synthesis over the course of 7 days. Despite these observations, further investigations using flow cytometry and RT-PCR, proved that cell attachment was unlikely to involve an ASGP-R mediated mechanism. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011. Source

Orr R.,Thomas Graham Building | Pethrick R.A.,Thomas Graham Building
Liquid Crystals | Year: 2011

Improvements in the oscillating plate and rotational viscosity measurements are described and data presented for 4-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (K15). The influence of the magnitude of themagnetic field on the viscosity coefficients is explored and the limiting field which has to be achieved for field-independent values is identified. The field dependence of the viscosity coefficients is compared with theoretical prediction. Comparison of this data with earlier measurements indicates the limitations of the use of lower field strengths. Combining the data from the measured viscosities, the Leslie-Ericksen coefficients are calculated. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Ashworth I.W.,Astrazeneca | Hillier I.H.,University of Manchester | Nelson D.J.,Thomas Graham Building | Percy J.M.,Thomas Graham Building | Vincent M.A.,University of Manchester
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

Density function theory calculations reveal that the Grubbs-Hoveyda olefin metathesis pre-catalyst is activated by the formation of a complex in which the incoming alkene substrate and outgoing alkoxy ligand are both clearly associated with the ruthenium centre. The computed energies for reaction are in good agreement with the experimental values, reported here. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Dick L.,University of Strathclyde | Dooley N.,University of Strathclyde | Elliott M.A.,University of Strathclyde | Ford S.J.,University of Strathclyde | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2011

Boron phenylalanine is one of the lead drug candidates in the field of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Its inherent low toxicity allows large doses to be administered, but this makes it important to identify, rationalise and quantify impurities. Here we report a chromatographic assay method, the conditions under which the parent compound is unstable, and the suggested degradation mechanisms. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kyne S.H.,Thomas Graham Building | Percy J.M.,Thomas Graham Building | Pullin R.D.C.,University of Leicester | Redmond J.M.,Glaxosmithkline | Wilson P.G.,Thomas Graham Building
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2011

Difluoroalkenylzinc reagents prepared from 1-(2′-methoxy- ethoxymethoxy)-2,2,2-trifluoroethane and 1-(N,N-diethylcarbamoyloxy)-2,2,2- trifluoroethane at ice bath temperatures underwent Negishi coupling with a range of aryl halides in a convenient one pot procedure. While significant differences between the enol acetal and carbamate reagents were revealed, the Negishi protocol compared very favourably with alternative coupling procedures in terms of overall yields from trifluoroethanol. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011. Source

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