Thomas P.A.,Joseph Eye Hospital |
A Teresa P.,Joseph Eye Hospital |
Theodore J.,Thomas Diagnostic and Research Center |
Geraldine P.,Bharathidasan University
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics | Year: 2012
Mycotic keratitis, an infection of the cornea caused by fungi, is a medical emergency, with patients presenting with considerable pain and distress. For effective management of the condition, a specific diagnosis must be made rapidly to permit early initiation of antifungal therapy. Currently, direct microscopic examination and culture of corneal material constitute the 'gold standard' for diagnosis. However, rapid, sensitive yet specific tests are needed to detect a small number of, or nonviable, fungi. PCR has many potential advantages when used as a diagnostic aid for mycotic keratitis; the present review covers these advantages, and possible limitations. An expert assessment is also made of studies that have used PCR for the diagnosis of mycotic keratitis. The review concludes with a Five-year view of the potential impact of PCR in management of mycotic keratitis. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd.
Variations in erythrocyte antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation status and in serum lipid profile parameters in relation to blood haemoglobin A1c values in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Annadurai T.,Bharathidasan University |
Vasanthakumar A.,Bharathidasan University |
Geraldine P.,Bharathidasan University |
Thomas P.A.,Thomas Diagnostic and Research Center
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2014
Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation status in erythrocytes and serum lipid profile parameters, in relation to haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Sixty test individuals with diabetes and 15 control individuals were categorized as: Group I, control (non-diabetes); Group II, individuals with diabetes with HbA1c levels ≤7.0% (53. mmol/mol); Group III, individuals with diabetes with HbA1c levels between 7.1 and 8.0% (54 and 64. mmol/mol); Group IV, individuals with diabetes with HbA1c levels between 8.1 and 9.0% (65 and 75. mmol/mol); Group V, individuals with diabetes with HbA1c levels >9.0% (75. mmol/mol). Blood samples were collected to measure: blood glucose and HbA1c levels; haemolysate levels of enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA); and serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Correlations between blood HbA1c values and all parameters were sought. Results: Significantly lower mean activities/levels of antioxidant parameters and significantly higher mean levels of MDA were noted in haemolysate samples from patients with diabetes than in those from control individuals. Significantly higher mean serum concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides and significantly lower mean concentrations of HDL-cholesterol were noted in patients with diabetes than in control individuals. Further, moderate to strong correlations were observed between values of antioxidants, MDA and lipid profile parameters and blood concentrations of HbA1c. Conclusion: These results suggest that HbA1c values may be potentially useful not only to indicate long-term glycemic control to indicate onset of complications at a clinically detectable level and molecular level. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Annadurai T.,Bharathidasan University |
Muralidharan A.R.,Bharathidasan University |
Joseph T.,Thomas Diagnostic and Research Center |
Hsu M.J.,Taipei Medical University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012
In the present study, the putative antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of a flavanone, naringenin, were evaluated in comparison with those of glyclazide, a standard drug for therapy of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes was induced experimentally in 12-hfasted rats by intraperitoneal injections of first streptozotocin (50 mg/kg b.w.) and then of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg b.w.) after a 15-min interval. Untreated diabetic rats revealed the following in comparison with normal rats: significantly higher mean levels of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, significantly lower mean levels of serum insulin, significantly lower mean activities of pancreatic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S- transferase), significantly lower mean levels of plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C , vitamin E), significantly elevated mean levels of pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly elevated mean activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Following oral administration of naringenin (50 mg/kg b.w./day) to diabetic rats for 21 days, the following observations were made in comparison with untreated diabetic rats: significantly lower mean levels of fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, significantly elevated serum insulin levels, significantly higher mean activities of pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants, significantly higher mean levels of plasma nonenzymatic antioxidants, lower mean pancreatic tissue levels of MDA and lower mean activities of ALT, AST, ALP and LDH in serum. The values obtained in the naringenin-treated animals approximated those observed in glyclazide-treated animals. Histopathological studies appeared to suggest a protective effect of naringenin on the pancreatic tissue in diabetic rats. These results suggest that naringenin exhibits antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects in experimental diabetic rats. © University of Navarra 2012.