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Zhang M.,Nanjing Medical University | Ge G.,Third Hospital of Zhenjiang City | Yang Y.,Red Cross | Cai X.,Red Cross | And 3 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Selective pressure from either the immune response or the use of nucleoside analogs in antiviral therapy could be driving the emergence of HBV mutants. Because of the overlap of the open reading frame (ORF) S for the HBsAg and ORF P for viral polymerase, rtM204I and rtM204V mutations in the polymerase would produce sI195M and sW196S in the HBsAg. The combined effects of immune-escaped mutations (sT118M, sG145K, sG145R) and drug-resistant mutations (rtM204I, rtM204V) on the antigenicity profiles of HBsAg has not been widely explored. Methods. To determine the combined effects of immune-escaped and drug-resistant mutants on the antigenicity profiles of HBsAg, recombinant plasmids encoding HBsAg double mutants were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis. The supernatant from each plasmid transfection was analyzed for HBsAg in the western-blotting and five of the most commonly used commercial ELISA kits in China. Results: Western-blotting assay showed the successful expression of each HBsAg mutant. All five ELISA kits manifested similar avidity, which were demonstrated by the slope of the curves, for the sT118M mutant, and sT118M-rtM204I (sT118M-sI195M) and sT118M-rtM204V (sT118M-sW196S) double mutants, suggesting that drug-resistant YMDD mutants caused negligible losses in the antigenicity of immune-escaped sT118M HBsAg. In contrast, the presence of the rtM204I (sI195M) mutation, but not rtM204V (sW196S) in combination with the sG145K mutation significantly reduced the avidity of sG145K HBsAg. The rtM204I (sI195M) mutation also decreased the antigenicity profiles for sG145R HBsAg. Conclusions: Drug-resistant mutations rtM204I (sI195M) and rtM204V (sW196S) caused significant reduction in antigenicity for the immune-escaped HBsAg mutants sG145K and sG145R, which may hamper HBV diagnosis and disease control from HBV blood-transfusion transmissions in China. The development of ELISA kits with a greater sensitivity for drug-resistant and immune-escaped HBsAg warrants further consideration. © 2013 Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Qiu S.,Nanjing Medical University | Pan H.,Third Hospital of Zhenjiang City | Zhang S.,Nanjing Medical University | Peng X.,Nanjing Medical University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective: China has implemented a free-service policy for tuberculosis. However, patients still have to pay a substantial proportion of their annual income for treatment of this disease. This study describes the economic burden on patients with tuberculosis; identifies related factors by comparing two areas with different management models; and provides policy recommendation for tuberculosis control reform in China. Methods: There are three tuberculosis management models in China: the tuberculosis dispensary model, specialist model and integrated model. We selected Zhangjiagang (ZJG) and Taixing (TX) as the study sites, which correspond to areas implementing the integrated model and dispensary model, respectively. Patients diagnosed and treated for tuberculosis since January 2010 were recruited as study subjects. A total of 590 patients (316 patients from ZJG and 274 patients from TX) were interviewed with a response rate of 81%. The economic burden attributed to tuberculosis, including direct costs and indirect costs, was estimated and compared between the two study sites. The Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare the cost differences between the two groups. Potential factors related to the total outof-pocket costs were analyzed based on a step-by-step multivariate linear regression model after the logarithmic transformation of the costs. Results: The average (median, interquartile range) total cost was 18793.33 (9965, 3200-24400) CNY for patients in ZJG, which was significantly higher than for patients in TX (mean: 6598.33, median: 2263, interquartile range: 983-6688) (Z = 10.42, P < 0.001). After excluding expenses covered by health insurance, the average out-of-pocket costs were 14304.4 CNY in ZJG and 5639.2 CNY in TX. Based on the multivariable linear regression analysis, factors related to the total out-of-pocket costs were study site, age, number of clinical visits, residence, diagnosis delay, hospitalization, intake of liver protective drugs and use of the second-line drugs. Conclusion: Under the current "free of diagnosis and treatment" policy, the financial burden remains heavy on tuberculosis patients. Policy makers need to consider appropriate steps to lessen the burden of out-of-pocket costs for tuberculosis patients in China and how best to improve service delivery for poor patients. © 2015 Qiu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Shen H.,Nanjing Medical University | Min R.,Nanjing Medical University | Tan Q.,Nanjing Medical University | Xie W.,Nanjing Medical University | And 6 more authors.
Archives of Medical Science | Year: 2015

Introduction: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a hard-to-treat disease with a poor outcome of chemotherapy. In the present study, the efficacy and safety of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) were investigated in patients with MDR-TB. Material and methods: Fifty culture-confirmed patients with MDR-TB were included. Twenty-five patients were randomly assigned to the trial group (injection of 500 000 IU of rhIL-2 once every other day at the first, third, fifth and seventh months in addition to standard multidrug therapy) and another 25 patients to the control group with standard multidrug therapy. All patients were monitored clinically, and T-cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The rates of sputum negative conversion and X-ray resolution in the trial group were higher than those of the control, and the improvements were significant by completion of treatment. In addition, CD4+CD25 + T cells in the controls rose gradually during treatment. The levels at the end of the seventh month were significantly higher than before, which were also significantly different when compared with those from the trial group at the same time. However, there were no such changes associated with treatment in the trial group. No significant differences appeared in other T cell subsets. Conclusions: Exogenous IL-2 in the present regimen improves immunity status. Adjunctive immunotherapy with a long period of rhIL-2 is a promising treatment modality for MDR-TB. Copyright © 2015 Termedia & Banach.

Pan H.,Third Hospital of Zhenjiang City | Dai Y.,Nanjing Medical University | Tang S.,Nanjing Medical University | Wang J.,Nanjing Medical University
International Journal of Immunogenetics | Year: 2012

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of leprosy reported four specific genetic polymorphisms of NOD2 that were associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium leprae in China. Considering the role of NOD2 in innate immune defence, we performed a study in a Chinese population to determine whether the same SNPs of NOD2 that were associated with disease caused by M. leprae were also associated with disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We performed a frequency-matched case-control study in 1043 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 808 unaffected controls. All subjects were >15years old and were Han Chinese from Jiangsu Province. We extracted DNA from a blood sample from each study participant. SNPs of rs3135499, rs7194886, rs8057341 and rs9302752 in the NOD2 gene were genotyped using a TaqMan-based allelic discrimination system. Using all possible patients with tuberculosis as cases, no significant association was found between the four specific SNPs and the risk of tuberculosis. In a subgroup analysis restricted to cases with bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (sputum culture positive), the variant genotype of rs7194886 was significantly associated with an altered risk of tuberculosis. Compared with the CC genotype, individuals carrying the CT/TT genotype of rs7194886 had an increased risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.05-1.72)]. The association was stronger among tobacco smokers and males. By haplotype analysis, rs9302752C-rs7194886T was associated with an increased risk of bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (sputum culture positive) (P=0.039), but it was not significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. In summary, genetic polymorphisms of the SNP rs7194886 in the NOD2 gene, which were discovered in the GWAS of leprosy, might also be associated with the pulmonary tuberculosis in the Chinese population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Dai Y.,Nanjing Medical University | Zhang X.,Nanjing Chest Hospital | Pan H.,Third Hospital of Zhenjiang City | Tang S.,Nanjing Medical University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Recently, one genome-wide association study identified a susceptibility locus of rs4331426 on chromosome 18q11.2 for tuberculosis in the African population. To validate the significance of this susceptibility locus in other areas, we conducted a case-control study in the Chinese population.Methods: The present study consisted of 578 cases and 756 controls. The SNP rs4331426 and other six tag SNPs in the 100 Kbp up and down stream of rs4331426 on chromosome 18q11.2 were genotyped by using the Taqman-based allelic discrimination system.Results: As compared with the findings from the African population, genetic variation of the SNP rs4331426 was rare among the Chinese. No significant differences were observed in genotypes or allele frequencies of the tag SNPs between cases and controls either before or after adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, and drinking history. However, we observed strong linkage disequilibrium of SNPs. Constructed haplotypes within this block were linked the altered risks of tuberculosis. For example, in comparison with the common haplotype AA (rs8087945-rs12456774), haplotypes AG (rs8087945-rs12456774)and GA (rs8087945-rs12456774)were associated with a decreased risk of tuberculosis, with the adjusted odds ratio(95% confidence interval) of 0.34(0.27-0.42) and 0.22(0.16-0.29), respectively.Conclusions: Susceptibility locus of rs4331426 discovered in the African population could not be validated in the Chinese population. None of genetic polymorphisms we genotyped were related to tuberculosis in the single-point analysis. However, haplotypes on chromosome 18q11.2 might contribute to an individual's susceptibility. More work is necessary to identify the true causative variants of tuberculosis. © 2011 Dai et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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