Prastani C.,University Utrecht |
Vetushka A.,ASCR Institute of Physics Prague |
Hyvl M.,ASCR Institute of Physics Prague |
Fejfar A.,ASCR Institute of Physics Prague |
And 5 more authors.
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine | Year: 2013
Peak Force Atomic Force Microscope is a new technique to characterize fragile materials such as nanoparticles with high accuracy with only one measurement. Unlike the tapping mode AFM, Peak Force AFM operates at a frequency below the resonant frequency of the cantilever. This allows for a direct control of the forces and avoids lateral forces that may damage the sample as in contact mode AFM. Furthermore, the performance characteristics of Peak Force AFM are suitable to work also in Tunneling AFM (TUNA) mode, enabling the study of the electrical properties of materials. In this work SnS nanoparticles capped with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) have been characterized. By means of Peak Force AFM it is possible to measure simultaneously topography and current maps of nanoparticles, yielding information about the shape, size and the conductivity of even a single nanoparticle. The topography map clearly showed single nanoparticles with a size less than 5 nm and spherical shape. In the conductivity map it is possible to discern the same nanoparticles, the correlation with the topography map is evident. This confirms the conduction (though not calibrated) of SnS nanoparticles. This type of measurements has been repeated many times in order to check the reproducibility of this technique. Moreover, the same nanoparticles have been measured also by Torsional Resonant TUNA AFM in order to compare it with Peak Force AFM. By means of TR-TUNA it was possible to measure the topography of SnS nanoparticles capped with TOPO but not the current. Besides, the resolution of the topography map acquired by TR-TUNA AFM is inferior to Peak Force AFM. From this comparison it has been found that the conductivity of nanoparticles, even if they are capped with TOPO, can be measured by Peak Force AFM, a result that thus far has been difficult to achieve by other types of AFM. Copyright © 2013 Materials Research Society. Source
Didden A.P.,Technical University of Delft |
Middelkoop J.,Technical University of Delft |
Besling W.F.A.,NXP Semiconductors |
Nanu D.E.,Thin Film Factory B.V. |
And 2 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2014
The design of a fluidized bed atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor is described in detail. The reactor consists of three parts that have all been placed in one protective cabinet: precursor dosing, reactor, and residual gas treatment section. In the precursor dosing section, the chemicals needed for the ALD reaction are injected into the carrier gas using different methods for different precursors. The reactor section is designed in such a way that a homogeneous fluidized bed can be obtained with a constant, actively controlled, reactor pressure. Furthermore, no filters are required inside the reactor chamber, minimizing the risk of pressure increase due to fouling. The residual gas treatment section consists of a decomposition furnace to remove residual precursor and a particle filter and is installed to protect the pump. In order to demonstrate the performance of the reactor, SiO2 particles have been coated with TiO2 using tetrakis-dimethylamino titanium (TDMAT) and H2O as precursors. Experiments with varying pulse times show that saturated growth can be obtained with TDMAT pulse times larger than 600 s. Analysis of the powder with High-Angle Annular Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that after 50 cycles, all SiO2 particles were coated with a 1.6 nm homogenous shell of TiO2. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Source