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Arun A.,Thiagarajar College Autonomous | Eyini M.,Research Center in Botany
Bioresource Technology

A total of 130 wild basidiomycetes fungi were collected and identified. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation by the potential Phellinus sp., Polyporus sulphureus (in liquid state fermentation (LSF), solid state fermentation (SSF), in soil) and lignin biodegradation were compared with those of a bacterial isolate and their corresponding cocultures. The PAHs degradation was higher in LSF and the efficiency of the organisms declined in SSF and in soil treatment. Phellinus sp. showed better degradation in SSF and in soil. Bacillus pumilus showed higher degradation in LSF. B. pumilus was seen to have lower lignin degradation than the fungal cultures and the cocultures could not enhance the degradation. Phellinus sp. which had higher PAHs and lignin degradation showed higher biosurfactant production than other organism. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was the predominant enzyme in Phellinus sp. while lignin peroxidase (Lip) was predominant in P. sulphureus. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Balakrishnan G.S.,Liatris Biosciences LLP | Kalirajan J.,Thiagarajar College Autonomous
Current Proteomics

Tyrosinase a copper-containing metalloprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of tyrosine in particular L-DOPA to L-Dopaquinone, which produces brown pigments in the wounded tissues. The industrial demand for tyrosinase enzyme is increasing as it has a wide range of applications in the field of food, pulp, paper, textile industry, medicine and in environmental technology. In the present investigation, tyrosinase was extracted from Dioscorea alata, a plant source. The enzyme activity of acetone precipitated protein was determined to be 10.6 mkat/ml and the isolated protein depicted the molecular weight of around 40 kDa. The isolated enzyme was confirmed to be tyrosinase using zymogram with 3, 4 dihydroxy- L-phenylalanine as substrate. The tyrosinase from SDS-PAGE band was eluted and precipitated by freeze drying. The precipitated enzyme was then solubilized and the optimum pH and temperature values for maximum enzyme activity were found to be 6.7 and 25°C respectively. Kinetic studies were carried out under optimal conditions and the Km and Vmax value were found to be 7.14 mM and 0.1 s-1 respectively. The crystallized enzyme was separated by SDS-PAGE and the gel was digested by in-gel in solution technique for LC-MS for characterization of enzyme. The enzyme sequence from the LC-MS spectrogram was identified by Homology driven proteomics approach. Though a group of analogous sequences have been found from other organisms, the lack of sequence data in protein databases leads to find a match in D. alata itself. But the Molecular characterization confirmed that the protein isolated from D. alata was tyrosinase. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Kubendran T.,Thiagarajar College Autonomous | Rathinakumar T.,Thiagarajar College Autonomous | Balasubramanian C.,Thiagarajar College Autonomous | Selvakumar C.,University of Madras | Sivaramakrishnan K.G.,Madras Christian College Autonomous
Journal of Insect Science

A new species of Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge, 1987, Labiobaetis soldani sp. nov., is described from the larvae and reared male and female imagoes from Gadana River in the southern Western Ghats in India. Brief ecological notes are appended. The taxonomic status of Labiobaetis is commented on in light of the morphological traits of the larvae and associated imagoes. © This is an open access paper. Source

Rosaline X.D.,Thiagarajar College Autonomous | Sakthivelkumar S.,University of Madras | Rajendran K.,Thiagarajar College Autonomous | Janarthanan S.,University of Madras
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Objective: To screen the antibacterial efficacy of various solvent extracts of marine algae such as Sargassum wightii (S. wightii), Chaetomorpha linum (C. linum) and Padina gymnospora (P. gymnospora) against some selected gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Crude extracts were prepared from the selected marine algae using different solvents namely, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol and were tested for their antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also performed for selected solvent extracts for all the bacterial species. A suitable positive control was also maintained. Results: Among the three marine algae screened P. gymnospora and S. wightii were found to be more active than C. linum. It was observed that the acetone extracts of all the three marine algae showed higher inhibitory activity for the selected bacterial species than other solvent extracts. The results revealed that the crude acetone extracts seem to be a good source material in identifying the effective pure antibacterial compound(s) in all the three marine algae and particularly, S. wightii. Conclusions: The present study showed that the acetone extracts of marine algae such as S. wightii, C. linum and P. gymnospora exhibited good antimicrobial activity. But the acetone extracts of S. wightii possessed highest antibacterial activity than others and so it could be useful in seeking active principles against human pathogenic bacteria. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source

Banu A.N.,Thiagarajar College Autonomous | Balasubramanian C.,Thiagarajar College Autonomous
Parasitology Research

The efficacy of silver generated larvicide with the help of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea (Ifr) against major vector mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The Ifr-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized structurally and functionally using UV-visible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The optimum pH (alkaline), temperature (30 °C) and agitation (150 rpm) for AgNP synthesis and its stability were confirmed through colour change. Ae. aegypti larvae (I–IV instars) were found highly susceptible to synthesized AgNPs than the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the mortality rate was indirectly proportional to the larval instar and the concentration. The lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90 % of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the tested concentration are 0.240, 0 0.075.337, 0.430, 0.652 and 1.219, 2.210, 2.453, 2.916; 0.065, 0.075, 0.098, 0.137 and 0.558, 0.709, 0.949, 1.278 ppm with respect to 0.03 to 1.00 ppm of Ifr-AgNPs against first, second, third and fourth instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. This is the first report for synthesis of AgNPs using Ifr against human vector mosquitoes. Hence, Ifr-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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