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Bunkyō-ku, Japan

Maehara N.,TheUniversity of Tokyo | Arai S.,TheUniversity of Tokyo | Mori M.,TheUniversity of Tokyo | Iwamura Y.,TheUniversity of Tokyo | And 13 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2014

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a widespread fatal disease and the third most common cause of cancer deaths. Here, we show the potent anti-HCC effect of the circulating protein AIM. As in adipocytes, AIM is incorporated into normal hepatocytes, where it interferes with lipid storage. In contrast, AIM accumulates on the HCC cell surface and activates the complement cascade via inactivating multiple regulators of complement activation. This response provokes necrotic cell death specifically in AIM-bound HCC cells. Accordingly, AIM-/- mice were highly susceptible to steatosis-associated HCC development, whereas no AIM+/+ mouse developed the disease despite comparable liver inflammation and fibrosis in response to a long-term high-fat diet. Administration of AIM prevented tumor development in AIM-/- mice, and HCC induction by diethylnitrosamine was more prominent in AIM-/- than wild-type mice. These findings could be the basis for novel AIM-based therapeutic strategies for HCC. © 2014 The Authors.

Takai H.,University of Tokyo | Masuda K.,TheUniversity of Tokyo | Sato T.,University of Tokyo | Sakaguchi Y.,University of Tokyo | And 15 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2014

The development of cancer is driven not only by genetic mutations but also by epigenetic alterations. Here, we show that TET1-mediated production of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that chromatin target of PRMT1 (CHTOP) binds to 5hmC. We found that CHTOP is associated with an arginine methyltransferase complex, termed the methylosome, and that this promotes the PRMT1-mediated methylation of arginine 3 of histone H4 (H4R3) in genes involved in glioblastomagenesis, including EGFR, AKT3, CDK6, CCND2, and BRAF. Moreover, we found that CHTOP and PRMT1 are essential for the expression of these genes and that CHTOP is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. These results suggest that 5hmC plays a critical role in glioblastomagenesis by recruiting the CHTOP-methylosome complex to selective sites on the chromosome, where it methylates H4R3 and activates the transcription of cancer-related genes. © 2014 The Authors.

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