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Naphon P.,Thermo Fluids | Wongwises S.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2010

In this paper, the jet liquid impingement heat transfer characteristics in the mini-rectangular fin heat sink for the central processing unit of a personal computer are experimentally investigated. The experiments are tested with three different channel width heat sinks under real operating conditions: no load and full load conditions. The jet liquid impingement cooling with mini-rectangular fin heat sink system is introduced as the active and passive heat transfer enhancement techniques. Effects of relevant parameters on the central processing unit temperature are considered. It is found that the central processing unit temperatures obtained from the jet liquid impingement cooling system are lower than those from the conventional liquid cooling system; however, the energy consumption also increases. The results of this study are of technological importance for the efficient design of cooling systems of personal computers or electronic devices to enhance cooling performance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Yousefi M.,Thermo Fluids | Darus A.N.,Thermo Fluids | Mohammadi H.,University of Technology Malaysia
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2012

This paper presents the application of imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) for optimization of a cross-flow plate fin heat exchanger. Minimization of total weight and total annual cost are considered as objectives. Seven design parameters, namely, heat exchanger length at hot and cold sides, fin height, fin frequency, fin thickness, fin-strip length and number of hot side layers are selected as optimization variables. A case study from literature is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The numerical results reveal that ICA can find optimum configuration with higher accuracy in less computational time when compared to conventional genetic algorithm (GA). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Naphon P.,Thermo Fluids | Wiriyasart S.,Thermo Fluids
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2012

The heat within the operating drive is mainly generated by the SPM, VCM, magnetic read/write head sensor, and windage loss. Temperature is often quoted as the most important environmental factor affecting disk drive reliability. The results of the investigation on the thermal cooling of vapor chamber with refrigerant R-141b as working fluid for cooling hard disk drive are presented. It was found that the vapor chamber cooling technique has a significant effect on the thermal cooling of hard disk drive. At the optimum condition (20% fill ratio of working fluid) that results in minimum HDD temperature, average HDD temperatures of VC with refrigerant R-141b as working fluid are 10.73% and 23.37% lower than those with water as working fluid and those without VC, respectively. The results of this study are of technological importance for the efficient design of cooling systems of the personal computers or electronic devices to enhance cooling performance. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Naphon P.,Thermo Fluids
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2010

Improvement of the air conditioning system performance by using the heat pipe for cooling air before entering the condenser is presented. In the experiment, the heat pipe is fabricated from the straight copper tube with the diameter and length of 10, 600 mm, respectively. The arrangements of the heat pipe sets are arranged in the staggered layout with the tube rows of 1, 2, 3. R134a refrigerant is used as working fluid in the heat pipe set for this present study. By comparing with a conventional air conditioning system, the air conditioning system with three rows of heat pipe gives the highest COP and EER with increasing of 6.4%, 17.5%, respectively. On the global warming and environment problems, the results of this study are expected to lead to guidelines that will allow the improved performance of the air conditioning systems which reduce its energy consumption. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Naphon P.,Thermo Fluids | Suchana T.,Thermo Fluids
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2011

In the present study, the heat transfer characteristics and the pressure drop of the horizontal concentric tube with twisted wires brush inserts are investigated. The inner diameters of the inner and outer tubes are 15.78 and 25.40 mm, respectively. The twisted wire brushes are fabricated by winding a 0.2 mm diameter of the copper wires over a 2 mm diameter of two twisted iron core-rod with three different twisted wires densities of 100, 200, 300 wires per centimeter. The plain tube with full-length twisted wires brush and regularly spaced twisted wires brush with 30 cm spacer length inserts are tested. Cold and hot water are used as working fluids in shell side and tube-side, respectively. The test runs are performed at the hot water Reynolds number ranging between 6000 and 20000. The inlet cold and hot water temperatures are 15, 20 °C, and between 40 and 50 °C, respectively. Effect of twisted wires density, inlet fluid temperature, and relevant parameters on heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop are considered. Twisted wire brushes insert have a large effect on the enhancement of heat transfer, however, the pressure drops also increase. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Naphon P.,Thermo Fluids
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2011

Experimental and theoretical investigations on the entropy generation, exergy loss of a horizontal concentric micro-fin tube heat exchanger are presented. The experiments setup are designed and constructed for the measured data by using hot water and cold water as working fluids. The micro-fin tube is fabricated from the copper tube with an inner diameter of 8.92. mm. The experiments are performed for the hot and cold water mass flow rates in the range of 0.02-0.10. kg/s. The inlet hot water and inlet cold water temperatures are between 40 and 50 °C, and between 15 and 20 °C, respectively. The effects of relevant parameters on the entropy generation, and exergy loss are discussed. A central finite difference method is employed to solve the model for obtaining temperature distribution, entropy generation, and exergy loss of the micro-fin tube heat exchanger. The predicted results obtained from the model are verified by comparing with the present measured data. Reasonable agreement is obtained from the comparison between predicted results and those from the measured data. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Naphon P.,Thermo Fluids
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer | Year: 2011

In the present study, numerical and experimental results of the heat transfer and flow characteristics of the horizontal spiral-coil tube are investigated. The spiral-coil tube is fabricated by bending a 8.00. mm diameter straight copper tube into a spiral-coil of five turns. The innermost and outermost diameters of the spiral-coil are 270.00 and 406.00. mm, respectively. Hot and cold water are used as working fluids. The k-ε standard two-equation turbulence model is applied to simulate the turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics. The main governing equations are solved by a finite volume method with an unstructured nonuniform grid system. Experiments are performed to obtain the heat transfer and flow characteristics for verifying the numerical results. Reasonable agreement is obtained from the comparison between the results from the experiment and those obtained from the model. In addition, the Nusselt number and pressure drop per unit length obtained from the spiral-coil tube are 1.49 and 1.50 times higher than those from the straight tube, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | August 5, 2015
Site: www.businesswire.com

NORWELL, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Clean Harbors, Inc. (“Clean Harbors”) (NYSE: CLH), the leading provider of environmental, energy and industrial services throughout North America, today announced financial results for its fiscal second quarter ended June 30, 2015. “Clean Harbors delivered record second-quarter financial results, as substantial emergency response activity and strong contributions from several of our businesses more than offset weakness in our energy-related businesses and the adverse effects of foreign currency translation,” said Alan S. McKim, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. “Our excellent operating performance produced the highest quarterly revenue in our Company’s history and Adjusted EBITDA that exceeded our previously announced guidance range.” Revenues for the second quarter of 2015 were $936.2 million, up 9% from $858.5 million in the same period in 2014. Income from operations was $60.8 million in the second quarter of 2015, compared with $67.1 million in the same period last year. Second-quarter 2015 income from operations included a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $32.0 million related to the Oil and Gas Field Services segment. The Company recognized the impairment charge due to that business segment’s continuing challenges, including impacts from lower crude oil pricing such as reduced exploration budgets, lower North American rig counts and decreased overall customer spending. Excluding the non-cash impairment charge, the Company reported adjusted income from operations of $92.8 million for the second quarter of 2015. Second-quarter 2015 net income was $10.4 million, or $0.18 per diluted share, which included the non-cash impairment charge and $1.8 million of pre-tax integration and severance costs. Excluding the impairment charge, the Company reported adjusted net income for the second quarter of 2015 of $42.4 million, or $0.72 per diluted share. This compares with second-quarter 2014 net income of $28.7 million, or $0.47 per diluted share, which included $4.0 million of pre-tax integration and severance costs. Adjusted EBITDA (see description below) in the second quarter of 2015 increased 20% to a record $163.1 million from $135.8 million in the same period of 2014. Adjusted EBITDA margin climbed 160 basis points to 17.4%, compared with 15.8% in the second quarter of 2014. Comments on the Second Quarter “During the second quarter, we participated in several major emergency response efforts to address natural disasters, pipeline spills, avian flu, rail-related accidents and damage to fixed facilities,” McKim said. “With our extensive capabilities to respond to large-scale emergencies and safely handle hazardous waste, we’re often called upon to marshal our resources to deal with these sizeable projects effectively. These unplanned events often involve national emergencies and major oil or chemical releases. For the second quarter, our activity related to this work generated revenue of approximately $170 million. “Our emergency response efforts resulted in considerable year-over-year growth in our Industrial and Field Services segment, supported by a strong performance in our U.S. Industrial group and base Field Services business. SK Environmental Services generated top-line growth and a double-digit increase in profitability, attributable to business mix, pricing and the addition of Thermo Fluids (TFI). Our Oil Re-refining and Recycling segment rebounded sharply from the first quarter, delivering improved profitability that reflected the success of our ongoing efforts to lower our average pay-for-oil (PFO) cost. Technical Services had a solid quarter, but profitability declined from that of the prior year, due to a delay in some large waste projects, reduced energy waste streams and outages at our two largest incinerators. Incineration utilization remained stable at 91%, but landfill volumes were down 29% from those of a year ago. Both our Oil and Gas Field Services and Lodging Services segments continued to fall short of our expectations as a result of ongoing softness in the energy markets and its corresponding effects in the Oil Sands region, as well as currency translation.” “We enter the second half of 2015 confident of our prospects for the full year, as we build on momentum across several businesses,” McKim said. “Industrial and Field Services will benefit from emergency response work that has carried into the third quarter, increased turnaround activity and growth in Field Services from its collaboration with Safety-Kleen. Technical Services has an impressive pipeline of large-volume waste projects to support its growth as we move into the segment’s seasonally strongest quarter. SK Environmental Services continues to outperform, generating both volume and pricing gains, and the addition of TFI provides another platform for growth. Within Oil Re-refining and Recycling, our efforts to expand the spread are proving successful, and we will continue to seek to lower our used oil collection and transportation costs. “Activities related to the planned carve-out of our Oil and Gas Field Services and Lodging Services segments remain on track. We intend to have this be a standalone entity capable of going public by January 1, 2016, and we currently expect to complete an IPO during 2016, depending on market conditions and Board approval. Within the two business segments planned to be carved out, we are seeing some positive signs. Our seismic group is targeting several major Alaskan projects that will support the performance of Oil and Gas Field Services in the second half of the year. Lodging Services has been awarded some business in British Columbia for later this year and into early 2016, and the business is successfully targeting some unconventional markets as it continues to weather ongoing challenges in the Oil Sands region. “Overall, we believe we are well-positioned for continued success in 2015 as we benefit from the diversity of our business model. Although the energy markets remain depressed, we see opportunities to add profitable growth in the environmental and industrial areas of our business through selective acquisitions and strategic investments that will capitalize on the leverage inherent in our extensive network and asset base,” McKim concluded. Based on its second-quarter performance, current market conditions and the impact of emergency response events, Clean Harbors is reaffirming its previously announced 2015 Adjusted EBITDA guidance range of $530 million to $570 million. A reconciliation of the Company’s Adjusted EBITDA guidance to net income guidance is included below. For the third quarter of 2015, the Company expects to generate Adjusted EBITDA in the range of $165 million to $170 million. Clean Harbors reports Adjusted EBITDA results, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, as a complement to results provided in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (GAAP). The Company believes that Adjusted EBITDA provides additional useful information to investors since the Company’s loan covenants are based upon levels of Adjusted EBITDA achieved. The Company defines Adjusted EBITDA in accordance with its existing credit agreement, as described in the following reconciliation showing the differences between reported net income and Adjusted EBITDA for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands): This press release includes a discussion of income from operations, net income and earnings per share amounts adjusted for the goodwill impairment charge identified in the reconciliations provided below. The Company believes that discussion of these additional non-GAAP measures provides investors with meaningful comparisons of current results to prior periods’ results by excluding items that the Company does not believe reflect its fundamental business performance. The following shows the difference between income from operations to adjusted income from operations, net income to adjusted net income and earnings per share to adjusted earnings per share for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands,except per share amounts): An itemized reconciliation between projected net income and projected Adjusted EBITDA is as follows: Clean Harbors will conduct a conference call for investors today at 9:00 a.m. (ET) to discuss the information contained in this press release. On the call, management will discuss Clean Harbors’ financial results, business outlook and growth strategy. Investors who wish to listen to the webcast and view the accompanying slides should visit the Investor Relations section of the Company’s website at www.cleanharbors.com. The live call also can be accessed by dialing 201.689.8881 or 877.709.8155 prior to the start of the call. If you are unable to listen to the live call, the webcast will be archived on the Company’s website. Clean Harbors (NYSE: CLH) is North America’s leading provider of environmental, energy and industrial services. The Company serves a diverse customer base, including a majority of the Fortune 500, across the chemical, energy, manufacturing and additional markets, as well as numerous government agencies. These customers rely on Clean Harbors to deliver a broad range of services such as end-to-end hazardous waste management, emergency spill response, industrial cleaning and maintenance, and recycling services. Through its Safety-Kleen subsidiary, Clean Harbors also is North America’s largest re-refiner and recycler of used oil and a leading provider of parts washers and environmental services to commercial, industrial and automotive customers. Founded in 1980 and based in Massachusetts, Clean Harbors operates throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico and Puerto Rico. For more information, visit www.cleanharbors.com. Any statements contained herein that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are generally identifiable by use of the words “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “anticipates,” “plans to,” “estimates,” “projects,” or similar expressions. Such statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about future financial and operating results, the Company’s planned carve-out and other statements that are not historical facts. Such statements are based upon the beliefs and expectations of Clean Harbors’ management as of this date only and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially including, without limitation, those items identified as “risk factors” in Clean Harbors’ most recently filed Form 10-K and Form 10-Q. Therefore, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Clean Harbors undertakes no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements other than through its filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which may be viewed in the “Investors” section of Clean Harbors’ website at www.cleanharbors.com. Clean Harbors reports Adjusted EBITDA results, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, as a complement to results provided in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (GAAP) and believes that such information provides additional useful information to investors since the Company’s loan covenants are based upon levels of Adjusted EBITDA achieved. The Company defines Adjusted EBITDA in accordance with its existing credit agreement. See “Non-GAAP Results” for a reconciliation of the Company’s total Adjusted EBITDA to GAAP net income.


News Article | August 5, 2015
Site: www.businesswire.com

NORWELL, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Clean Harbors, Inc. (“Clean Harbors”) (NYSE: CLH), the leading provider of environmental, energy and industrial services throughout North America, today announced financial results for its fiscal second quarter ended June 30, 2015. “Clean Harbors delivered record second-quarter financial results, as substantial emergency response activity and strong contributions from several of our businesses more than offset weakness in our energy-related businesses and the adverse effects of foreign currency translation,” said Alan S. McKim, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. “Our excellent operating performance produced the highest quarterly revenue in our Company’s history and Adjusted EBITDA that exceeded our previously announced guidance range.” Revenues for the second quarter of 2015 were $936.2 million, up 9% from $858.5 million in the same period in 2014. Income from operations was $60.8 million in the second quarter of 2015, compared with $67.1 million in the same period last year. Second-quarter 2015 income from operations included a non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $32.0 million related to the Oil and Gas Field Services segment. The Company recognized the impairment charge due to that business segment’s continuing challenges, including impacts from lower crude oil pricing such as reduced exploration budgets, lower North American rig counts and decreased overall customer spending. Excluding the non-cash impairment charge, the Company reported adjusted income from operations of $92.8 million for the second quarter of 2015. Second-quarter 2015 net income was $10.4 million, or $0.18 per diluted share, which included the non-cash impairment charge and $1.8 million of pre-tax integration and severance costs. Excluding the impairment charge, the Company reported adjusted net income for the second quarter of 2015 of $42.4 million, or $0.72 per diluted share. This compares with second-quarter 2014 net income of $28.7 million, or $0.47 per diluted share, which included $4.0 million of pre-tax integration and severance costs. Adjusted EBITDA (see description below) in the second quarter of 2015 increased 20% to a record $163.1 million from $135.8 million in the same period of 2014. Adjusted EBITDA margin climbed 160 basis points to 17.4%, compared with 15.8% in the second quarter of 2014. Comments on the Second Quarter “During the second quarter, we participated in several major emergency response efforts to address natural disasters, pipeline spills, avian flu, rail-related accidents and damage to fixed facilities,” McKim said. “With our extensive capabilities to respond to large-scale emergencies and safely handle hazardous waste, we’re often called upon to marshal our resources to deal with these sizeable projects effectively. These unplanned events often involve national emergencies and major oil or chemical releases. For the second quarter, our activity related to this work generated revenue of approximately $170 million. “Our emergency response efforts resulted in considerable year-over-year growth in our Industrial and Field Services segment, supported by a strong performance in our U.S. Industrial group and base Field Services business. SK Environmental Services generated top-line growth and a double-digit increase in profitability, attributable to business mix, pricing and the addition of Thermo Fluids (TFI). Our Oil Re-refining and Recycling segment rebounded sharply from the first quarter, delivering improved profitability that reflected the success of our ongoing efforts to lower our average pay-for-oil (PFO) cost. Technical Services had a solid quarter, but profitability declined from that of the prior year, due to a delay in some large waste projects, reduced energy waste streams and outages at our two largest incinerators. Incineration utilization remained stable at 91%, but landfill volumes were down 29% from those of a year ago. Both our Oil and Gas Field Services and Lodging Services segments continued to fall short of our expectations as a result of ongoing softness in the energy markets and its corresponding effects in the Oil Sands region, as well as currency translation.” “We enter the second half of 2015 confident of our prospects for the full year, as we build on momentum across several businesses,” McKim said. “Industrial and Field Services will benefit from emergency response work that has carried into the third quarter, increased turnaround activity and growth in Field Services from its collaboration with Safety-Kleen. Technical Services has an impressive pipeline of large-volume waste projects to support its growth as we move into the segment’s seasonally strongest quarter. SK Environmental Services continues to outperform, generating both volume and pricing gains, and the addition of TFI provides another platform for growth. Within Oil Re-refining and Recycling, our efforts to expand the spread are proving successful, and we will continue to seek to lower our used oil collection and transportation costs. “Activities related to the planned carve-out of our Oil and Gas Field Services and Lodging Services segments remain on track. We intend to have this be a standalone entity capable of going public by January 1, 2016, and we currently expect to complete an IPO during 2016, depending on market conditions and Board approval. Within the two business segments planned to be carved out, we are seeing some positive signs. Our seismic group is targeting several major Alaskan projects that will support the performance of Oil and Gas Field Services in the second half of the year. Lodging Services has been awarded some business in British Columbia for later this year and into early 2016, and the business is successfully targeting some unconventional markets as it continues to weather ongoing challenges in the Oil Sands region. “Overall, we believe we are well-positioned for continued success in 2015 as we benefit from the diversity of our business model. Although the energy markets remain depressed, we see opportunities to add profitable growth in the environmental and industrial areas of our business through selective acquisitions and strategic investments that will capitalize on the leverage inherent in our extensive network and asset base,” McKim concluded. Based on its second-quarter performance, current market conditions and the impact of emergency response events, Clean Harbors is reaffirming its previously announced 2015 Adjusted EBITDA guidance range of $530 million to $570 million. A reconciliation of the Company’s Adjusted EBITDA guidance to net income guidance is included below. For the third quarter of 2015, the Company expects to generate Adjusted EBITDA in the range of $165 million to $170 million. Clean Harbors reports Adjusted EBITDA results, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, as a complement to results provided in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (GAAP). The Company believes that Adjusted EBITDA provides additional useful information to investors since the Company’s loan covenants are based upon levels of Adjusted EBITDA achieved. The Company defines Adjusted EBITDA in accordance with its existing credit agreement, as described in the following reconciliation showing the differences between reported net income and Adjusted EBITDA for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands): This press release includes a discussion of income from operations, net income and earnings per share amounts adjusted for the goodwill impairment charge identified in the reconciliations provided below. The Company believes that discussion of these additional non-GAAP measures provides investors with meaningful comparisons of current results to prior periods’ results by excluding items that the Company does not believe reflect its fundamental business performance. The following shows the difference between income from operations to adjusted income from operations, net income to adjusted net income and earnings per share to adjusted earnings per share for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands,except per share amounts): An itemized reconciliation between projected net income and projected Adjusted EBITDA is as follows: Clean Harbors will conduct a conference call for investors today at 9:00 a.m. (ET) to discuss the information contained in this press release. On the call, management will discuss Clean Harbors’ financial results, business outlook and growth strategy. Investors who wish to listen to the webcast and view the accompanying slides should visit the Investor Relations section of the Company’s website at www.cleanharbors.com. The live call also can be accessed by dialing 201.689.8881 or 877.709.8155 prior to the start of the call. If you are unable to listen to the live call, the webcast will be archived on the Company’s website. Clean Harbors (NYSE: CLH) is North America’s leading provider of environmental, energy and industrial services. The Company serves a diverse customer base, including a majority of the Fortune 500, across the chemical, energy, manufacturing and additional markets, as well as numerous government agencies. These customers rely on Clean Harbors to deliver a broad range of services such as end-to-end hazardous waste management, emergency spill response, industrial cleaning and maintenance, and recycling services. Through its Safety-Kleen subsidiary, Clean Harbors also is North America’s largest re-refiner and recycler of used oil and a leading provider of parts washers and environmental services to commercial, industrial and automotive customers. Founded in 1980 and based in Massachusetts, Clean Harbors operates throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico and Puerto Rico. For more information, visit www.cleanharbors.com. Any statements contained herein that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are generally identifiable by use of the words “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “anticipates,” “plans to,” “estimates,” “projects,” or similar expressions. Such statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about future financial and operating results, the Company’s planned carve-out and other statements that are not historical facts. Such statements are based upon the beliefs and expectations of Clean Harbors’ management as of this date only and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially including, without limitation, those items identified as “risk factors” in Clean Harbors’ most recently filed Form 10-K and Form 10-Q. Therefore, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Clean Harbors undertakes no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements other than through its filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which may be viewed in the “Investors” section of Clean Harbors’ website at www.cleanharbors.com. Clean Harbors reports Adjusted EBITDA results, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, as a complement to results provided in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (GAAP) and believes that such information provides additional useful information to investors since the Company’s loan covenants are based upon levels of Adjusted EBITDA achieved. The Company defines Adjusted EBITDA in accordance with its existing credit agreement. See “Non-GAAP Results” for a reconciliation of the Company’s total Adjusted EBITDA to GAAP net income.

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