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News Article | February 27, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Dublin, Feb. 27, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Markets for Gasifiers" report to their offering. The global market for new gasifiers is expected to reach 1088 units by 2021 from 887 units in 2016, rising at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.0% from 2015 through 2021. This report identifies, characterizes, describes and forecasts the markets for gasifiers on a global and regional basis. Attention is given to national/state incentives, international agreements, regulatory regimes and political policies that foster, hinder or avoid the implementation of gasifiers. Forecasts are provided to estimate the robustness of the gasifier markets in their different size ranges, feedstocks and applications over time, covering the period of 2015 through 2021. This report provides market data under geographic segmentation as well as technology segmentation. Estimated values provided where available are based on manufacturers' total revenues. This report provides: - An exploration of the global markets for gasifiers - Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021 - A breakdown of the types of gasifier technologies, including fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, entrained-flow, and plasma - Examinations of feedstocks, such as fossil fuel (coal, petcoke, and residuals), wood, forestry products, waste and waste wood, seed hulls, nut shells, organic refuse, and others (oil palm plantation waste, corn cobs and stover, coconut husks) - Examination of government support mechanisms, climate change policy impacts, and market expansion constraints, such as emissions, component costs, natural gas and shale gas prices, and land requirements for feedstocks - Profiles of major players in the industry Each region is unique in terms of feedstock availability and growth in gross domestic product (GDP). The gasifier market for each segment is analyzed in individual chapters. Under technology segmentation, the report divides the global market into eight technology applications: - Coal to energy (CTE). - Coal to liquids (CTL). - Biomass to energy (BTE). - Biomass to liquids (BTL). - Direct reduced iron (DRI) melting. - Pet coke (includes refinery residuals). - Waste to energy (WTE). - Plasma gasifiers. The status of technology development for each application is reviewed. The efficiencies possible under gasification and other competing technologies available in the specific markets determine the end cost to users. Gasifiers have become a mainstream product in a broad range of applications, which include central power stations, waste treatment, industrial chemicals production, on-site small industrial operations, district cogeneration, residences in rural economically poor areas and more. They are becoming an essential part of the energy conversion landscape and are already a multibillion-dollar-a-year diversified industry on a strong growth path globally. Key Topics Covered: 1: Introduction - Gasification - Gasifiers - Gasifier Manufacturers - Market Drivers - Study Goals And Objectives - Reasons For Doing The Study 2: Summary 3: Overview: Gasifier Technologies - Gasifier Market Structure - Types Of Gasifiers - Functional Distinguishing Design Features - Gasifier System Components - Physical Characteristics Of Gasifiers - Gasification + Direct Reduced Iron - Company-Specific Gasification Technologies - Suppliers That Offer Specific Technologies For The Gasifier Markets 4: Gasifier Applications And Market Trends - Gasification Applications - Gasifier Cost Analysis - Gasifier Market Trends Worldwide 5: Patent Analysis Of Gasifier Technologies - Patent Analysis By Year - Core Patents On Gasifier Technologies - Patent Analysis By Company/Institution - Patent Analysis By Region - Patent Analysis By Technology 6: World Gasifier Market Forecasts - Gasifier Application Market - Gasifier Markets By Region - Export And Import Data 7: North American Gasifier Markets - Forecast For North American Gasifier Markets 8: Western European Gasifier Market Forecast - Laws And Regulations Impacting The Gasifier Markets In Western Europe - Financial Incentives For Gasifiers In Western Europe - Gasifier Markets In Western Europe 9: Pacific Rim Gasifier Markets - Chinese Gasifier Markets - Japanese Gasifier Market - Philippines, South Korea And Taiwan Gasifier Markets - Pacific Rim Countries Gasifier Market Forecasts 10: Southeast Asian Gasifier Markets - Energy Markets In Southeast Asia - Coal Market In Indonesia - Natural Gas In Southeast Asia - Biomass In Southeast Asia - Southeast Asian Gasifier Market Forecasts 11: Gasifier Market In Southwest Asia - India - Bangladesh - Myanmar - Pakistan - Sri Lanka - Southwest Asia - Gasifier Market Forecast 12: Eastern European, Russian And Middle Eastern Gasifier Markets - Energy Markets In Eastern Europe - Forecasts For Gasifier Markets In Eastern Europe, Russia And The Middle East 13: Gasifier Markets In The Southern Hemisphere - Australia - New Zealand - Africa - Latin America And The Caribbean - Forecast Of The Gasifier Markets In The Southern Hemisphere 14: Directory Of Companies Active In The Global Gasifier Market - Aboriginal Cogeneration Corp. - Access Energy Technologies Ltd. - Adaptivearc Inc. - Advanced Plasma Power Ltd. - AESI Llc - Agilyx - AGRO Power Gasification Plant PVT. Ltd. - Air Liquide (Lurgi) - Air Products And Chemicals Inc. - Alentec - All Power Labs Llc - Alqimi (Formerly Absi) - Alstom - Alter Nrg Corp. - AMEC Foster Wheeler - AMEC Foster Wheeler - Global Power Group - Andritz AG - Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. - Appro Technology - Arrya Hi-Tech Energy - Associated Engineering Works - Babcock & Wilcox Vølund A/S - Balboa Pacific Corp. - Bellwether Gasification Technologies Ltd. - Benreg Europe GMBH - Bioresidue Energy Technology Pvt. Ltd. - Btg Bioliquids - Careco (PVT.) Ltd. - Chanderpur Works Pvt. Ltd. - Changzheng Engineering Co. Ltd. - Chemrec AB - Chinook Sciences Llc - Cho-Power - Chongqing Fengyu Electric Equipment Co. Ltd. - Choren Industrietechnik Gmbh - Clariant International - Community Power Corp. - Concord Blue Engineering Gmbh - Conocophillips - Core Biofuel - Corex (U.K.) Ltd. - Cortus Energy - Cosmo Powertech PVT. Ltd. - Creapor S.A. - Creative Energy Systems - Cynar Plc - Diversified Contractors Inc. - DKRW Advanced Fuels - DNV Gl Noble Denton - DPS Global - Dutemp Corp. - Dynamis Energy - E. B. Mechanism PVT. Ltd. - Ebara Corp. - Eco-Energys - Ecofogao - Ecoremedy Energy Technologies - Ener-G Holdings Plc - Energiron Danieli - Energy Works Group - Enerkem - Enersol Technologies Inc. - Enova Energy Group - Ensyn Corp. - Entrade Energy Corp - Envergent Technologies - Epic - ETA Heiztechnik Gmbh - Ethos Energy - Europlasma Group - Excelsior Energy Inc. - Frontline Bioenergy Llc - Fulcrum Bioenergy Inc. - Gasek OY - GB Energy Holding S.R.O. - GE Oil & Gas - Global Energy Collaborations - GP Green Energy Systems - Greatpoint Energy - GTS Syngas S.Rl./Gmbh - Haldor Topsoe A/S - Heat Transfer International (Hti) - Herz Energietechnik - Hitachi Zosen Corp. - Host Bioenergy - Husk Power Systems PVT. Ltd. - ICM Inc. - Ils-Partners Inc. - Inentec Inc. - Ineos Bio - Innerpoint Energy Corp. - Inertam - Infinite Energy Pvt. Ltd. - International Environmental Technologies Inc. (Iet) - Interstate Waste Technologies - Iqr Solutions AB - Japan Blue Energy Co. Ltd. - Jaroslav Cankar A Syn Atmos - Kawasaki Heavy Industries - KBR - Kinc Mineral Technologies Pvt. Ltd. - Kinsei Sangyo Co. Ltd. - Klean Industries Inc. - Kobelco Eco-Solutions Co. Ltd. - Krann Engineering - Linc Energy Ltd. - Linde AG - Magnegas Corp. - Manglam Biomass Gasifiers - Maverick Synfuels - Metso Paper Inc. - Meva Energy AB - Midrex - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Environmental And Chemical Engineering - Mothermik GMBH - Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Pvt. Ltd. - Nexterra Systems Corp. - Novo Energy Llc - Organic Energy Inc. - Outotec Energy Products - OVN Bio Energy PVT. Ltd. - Peat International - Peat International USA - PHG Energy - Phoenix Bioenergy Llc - Phoenix Energy - Phoenix Products - Phoenix Solutions Co. - Philcarbon - Plantec S.R.L. - Plasco Energy Group - Plasma Power Llc - Plasma2Energy - Powerhouse Energy Group Plc - Primus Green Energy - PRM Energy Systems Inc. - Pyrogenesis - Radhe Renewable Energy Development PVT. Ltd. - Recovered Energy Inc. - Renewables Plus SDN BHD - Rentech Inc. - Repotec Umwelttechnik GMBH - Rishipooja Energy And Engineering Co. - Saint-Gobain Industriekeramik Dusseldorf Gmbh - Sasol - Shell - Siemens Fuel Gasification Technology Gmbh - Sinerga S.A. - Sm Bioleum Resources PVT. Ltd. - Solena Group - Stak Properties Llc - Sundrop Fuels Inc. - Superior Gasification - Synata Bio (Formerly Coskata, Inc.) - Synergy Electric Pvt. Ltd. - Synterra Energy - Synthesis Energy Systems Inc. - Taim Weser S.A. - Takuma Co. Ltd. - Tangshan Keyuan Environmental Protection Technology & Equipment Co. Ltd. - Tarm Biomass - Taylor Biomass Energy Llc - Tenova Hyl (Part Of The Techint Group) - Terragon Environmental Technologies Inc. - Tetronics Ltd. - Thermal Power Research Institute (Tpri) - Thermochem Recovery International Inc. - Thompson Spaven - Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions AG - Topline Energy System Llc - Trans Gas Development Systems - Trillion International PTE. Ltd. - Tutsel - Upgrade Energy - Urbaser S.A. - Vista International Technologies Inc. - Voestalpine AG - Waste To Energy Canada - W2E Ventures Inc. - WPP Energy Hk Ltd. - Wuxi Teneng Power Machinery Co. Ltd. - Xinbao Biomass Energy Co. Ltd. - Xuzhou Orient Industry Co. Ltd. - Zeachem Inc. - ZEEP - Zero Point Cleantech - Zhongde Waste Technology AG For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/rjgxwh/global_markets


Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Markets for Gasifiers" report to their offering. The global market for new gasifiers is expected to reach 1088 units by 2021 from 887 units in 2016, rising at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.0% from 2015 through 2021. This report identifies, characterizes, describes and forecasts the markets for gasifiers on a global and regional basis. Attention is given to national/state incentives, international agreements, regulatory regimes and political policies that foster, hinder or avoid the implementation of gasifiers. Forecasts are provided to estimate the robustness of the gasifier markets in their different size ranges, feedstocks and applications over time, covering the period of 2015 through 2021. This report provides market data under geographic segmentation as well as technology segmentation. Estimated values provided where available are based on manufacturers' total revenues. - An exploration of the global markets for gasifiers - Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2015, estimates for 2016, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2021 - A breakdown of the types of gasifier technologies, including fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, entrained-flow, and plasma - Examinations of feedstocks, such as fossil fuel (coal, petcoke, and residuals), wood, forestry products, waste and waste wood, seed hulls, nut shells, organic refuse, and others (oil palm plantation waste, corn cobs and stover, coconut husks) - Examination of government support mechanisms, climate change policy impacts, and market expansion constraints, such as emissions, component costs, natural gas and shale gas prices, and land requirements for feedstocks - Profiles of major players in the industry Each region is unique in terms of feedstock availability and growth in gross domestic product (GDP). The gasifier market for each segment is analyzed in individual chapters. Under technology segmentation, the report divides the global market into eight technology applications: - Coal to energy (CTE). - Coal to liquids (CTL). - Biomass to energy (BTE). - Biomass to liquids (BTL). - Direct reduced iron (DRI) melting. - Pet coke (includes refinery residuals). - Waste to energy (WTE). - Plasma gasifiers. The status of technology development for each application is reviewed. The efficiencies possible under gasification and other competing technologies available in the specific markets determine the end cost to users. Gasifiers have become a mainstream product in a broad range of applications, which include central power stations, waste treatment, industrial chemicals production, on-site small industrial operations, district cogeneration, residences in rural economically poor areas and more. They are becoming an essential part of the energy conversion landscape and are already a multibillion-dollar-a-year diversified industry on a strong growth path globally. - Gasification - Gasifiers - Gasifier Manufacturers - Market Drivers - Study Goals And Objectives - Reasons For Doing The Study - Gasifier Market Structure - Types Of Gasifiers - Functional Distinguishing Design Features - Gasifier System Components - Physical Characteristics Of Gasifiers - Gasification + Direct Reduced Iron - Company-Specific Gasification Technologies - Suppliers That Offer Specific Technologies For The Gasifier Markets - Patent Analysis By Year - Core Patents On Gasifier Technologies - Patent Analysis By Company/Institution - Patent Analysis By Region - Patent Analysis By Technology - Laws And Regulations Impacting The Gasifier Markets In Western Europe - Financial Incentives For Gasifiers In Western Europe - Gasifier Markets In Western Europe - Energy Markets In Southeast Asia - Coal Market In Indonesia - Natural Gas In Southeast Asia - Biomass In Southeast Asia - Southeast Asian Gasifier Market Forecasts - Energy Markets In Eastern Europe - Forecasts For Gasifier Markets In Eastern Europe, Russia And The Middle East - Australia - New Zealand - Africa - Latin America And The Caribbean - Forecast Of The Gasifier Markets In The Southern Hemisphere 14: Directory Of Companies Active In The Global Gasifier Market - Aboriginal Cogeneration Corp. - Access Energy Technologies Ltd. - Adaptivearc Inc. - Advanced Plasma Power Ltd. - AESI Llc - Agilyx - AGRO Power Gasification Plant PVT. Ltd. - Air Liquide (Lurgi) - Air Products And Chemicals Inc. - Alentec - All Power Labs Llc - Alqimi (Formerly Absi) - Alstom - Alter Nrg Corp. - AMEC Foster Wheeler - AMEC Foster Wheeler - Global Power Group - Andritz AG - Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt. Ltd. - Appro Technology - Arrya Hi-Tech Energy - Associated Engineering Works - Babcock & Wilcox Vølund A/S - Balboa Pacific Corp. - Bellwether Gasification Technologies Ltd. - Benreg Europe GMBH - Bioresidue Energy Technology Pvt. Ltd. - Btg Bioliquids - Careco (PVT.) Ltd. - Chanderpur Works Pvt. Ltd. - Changzheng Engineering Co. Ltd. - Chemrec AB - Chinook Sciences Llc - Cho-Power - Chongqing Fengyu Electric Equipment Co. Ltd. - Choren Industrietechnik Gmbh - Clariant International - Community Power Corp. - Concord Blue Engineering Gmbh - Conocophillips - Core Biofuel - Corex (U.K.) Ltd. - Cortus Energy - Cosmo Powertech PVT. Ltd. - Creapor S.A. - Creative Energy Systems - Cynar Plc - Diversified Contractors Inc. - DKRW Advanced Fuels - DNV Gl Noble Denton - DPS Global - Dutemp Corp. - Dynamis Energy - E. B. Mechanism PVT. Ltd. - Ebara Corp. - Eco-Energys - Ecofogao - Ecoremedy Energy Technologies - Ener-G Holdings Plc - Energiron Danieli - Energy Works Group - Enerkem - Enersol Technologies Inc. - Enova Energy Group - Ensyn Corp. - Entrade Energy Corp - Envergent Technologies - Epic - ETA Heiztechnik Gmbh - Ethos Energy - Europlasma Group - Excelsior Energy Inc. - Frontline Bioenergy Llc - Fulcrum Bioenergy Inc. - Gasek OY - GB Energy Holding S.R.O. - GE Oil & Gas - Global Energy Collaborations - GP Green Energy Systems - Greatpoint Energy - GTS Syngas S.Rl./Gmbh - Haldor Topsoe A/S - Heat Transfer International (Hti) - Herz Energietechnik - Hitachi Zosen Corp. - Host Bioenergy - Husk Power Systems PVT. Ltd. - ICM Inc. - Ils-Partners Inc. - Inentec Inc. - Ineos Bio - Innerpoint Energy Corp. - Inertam - Infinite Energy Pvt. Ltd. - International Environmental Technologies Inc. (Iet) - Interstate Waste Technologies - Iqr Solutions AB - Japan Blue Energy Co. Ltd. - Jaroslav Cankar A Syn Atmos - Kawasaki Heavy Industries - KBR - Kinc Mineral Technologies Pvt. Ltd. - Kinsei Sangyo Co. Ltd. - Klean Industries Inc. - Kobelco Eco-Solutions Co. Ltd. - Krann Engineering - Linc Energy Ltd. - Linde AG - Magnegas Corp. - Manglam Biomass Gasifiers - Maverick Synfuels - Metso Paper Inc. - Meva Energy AB - Midrex - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Environmental And Chemical Engineering - Mothermik GMBH - Netpro Renewable Energy (India) Pvt. Ltd. - Nexterra Systems Corp. - Novo Energy Llc - Organic Energy Inc. - Outotec Energy Products - OVN Bio Energy PVT. Ltd. - Peat International - Peat International USA - PHG Energy - Phoenix Bioenergy Llc - Phoenix Energy - Phoenix Products - Phoenix Solutions Co. - Philcarbon - Plantec S.R.L. - Plasco Energy Group - Plasma Power Llc - Plasma2Energy - Powerhouse Energy Group Plc - Primus Green Energy - PRM Energy Systems Inc. - Pyrogenesis - Radhe Renewable Energy Development PVT. Ltd. - Recovered Energy Inc. - Renewables Plus SDN BHD - Rentech Inc. - Repotec Umwelttechnik GMBH - Rishipooja Energy And Engineering Co. - Saint-Gobain Industriekeramik Dusseldorf Gmbh - Sasol - Shell - Siemens Fuel Gasification Technology Gmbh - Sinerga S.A. - Sm Bioleum Resources PVT. Ltd. - Solena Group - Stak Properties Llc - Sundrop Fuels Inc. - Superior Gasification - Synata Bio (Formerly Coskata, Inc.) - Synergy Electric Pvt. Ltd. - Synterra Energy - Synthesis Energy Systems Inc. - Taim Weser S.A. - Takuma Co. Ltd. - Tangshan Keyuan Environmental Protection Technology & Equipment Co. Ltd. - Tarm Biomass - Taylor Biomass Energy Llc - Tenova Hyl (Part Of The Techint Group) - Terragon Environmental Technologies Inc. - Tetronics Ltd. - Thermal Power Research Institute (Tpri) - Thermochem Recovery International Inc. - Thompson Spaven - Thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions AG - Topline Energy System Llc - Trans Gas Development Systems - Trillion International PTE. Ltd. - Tutsel - Upgrade Energy - Urbaser S.A. - Vista International Technologies Inc. - Voestalpine AG - Waste To Energy Canada - W2E Ventures Inc. - WPP Energy Hk Ltd. - Wuxi Teneng Power Machinery Co. Ltd. - Xinbao Biomass Energy Co. Ltd. - Xuzhou Orient Industry Co. Ltd. - Zeachem Inc. - ZEEP - Zero Point Cleantech - Zhongde Waste Technology AG For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/fxprjx/global_markets


Li Z.-S.,Tsinghua University | Fang F.,Thermal Power Research Institute | Tang X.-Y.,Tsinghua University | Cai N.-S.,Tsinghua University
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

It is well-known that carbonation is characterized by a rapid initial rate followed by an abrupt transition to a very slow reaction rate. The slow period is believed to be controlled by the diffusion of reacting species throughout the product layer of CaCO 3. The thickness of the carbonate layer formed on the free surfaces of CaO is a critical parameter to mark the end of the fast reaction period. This study addresses the question of how temperature affects the reaction process. For example, when the carbonation reaction enters the product layer diffusion-controlled stage at a low temperature such as 500 °C, how does an increase to 600 °C affect the conversion as a function of time and what changes occur in the CaCO 3 product layer morphology? This work discusses the interesting finding that the fast reaction stage is recovered again when the temperature is increased. To understand and explain this phenomenon, it is necessary to investigate the mechanism of the temperature effect on the carbonation reaction. Many phenomena are not well explained by the theory of a critical product layer thickness, which is now used almost exclusively to explain the "maximum" conversion during carbonation reaction cycles. Therefore, we provide a new insight into this issue from a nanoscale point of view by combining thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with the trapping mode (TM) of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to explain the mechanism of the reaction temperatures effect on the reaction rate and solid conversion characteristics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Zhaofeng X.,Tsinghua University | Hetland J.,Sintef | Kvamsdal H.M.,Sintef | Zheng L.,Tsinghua University | Lianbo L.,Thermal Power Research Institute
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011

In China polygeneration from coal via gasification is seen as a promising technology that responds to the issues of security of energy supply and climate change. However, the implementation of coal-gasification schemes is still hampered with a comparatively low operational availability, and the relative cost imposed by polygeneration is deemed high. First, the capital expenses become higher due to the more comprehensive processing scheme including oxygen production. Second, the inclusion of CCS will affect the operating cost owing to additional staff and reduced revenues, as there will be less electricity to sell. Third, the maintenance cost tends to grow due to increased complexity. A new virtual IGCC-CCS1 power cycle has been defined, which forms the base case for benchmarking. A reference case has been formed using the prestigious Chinese GreenGen project (phase 1) as model. The two cases are based with identical gasifiers as the core component. In contrast to the reference case using a gas turbine fuelled with syngas and without CO2 capture, the virtual power cycle is made up using a generic hydrogen-burning gas turbine subsequent to an integrated gas separation unit in which CO2 is removed (jointly with H2S). Hence, the two cases have been benchmarked in order to assess the impact of CO2 capture on cost - notably without the inclusion of polygeneration, despite that polygeneration was part of the study (with hydrogen, ammonia, methanol and DME as co-products additional to electric power). The importance of this work is to assess techno-economic gaps in order to identify areas to address in order to improve process schemes towards an elevated stage of maturity. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Sun Z.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Gao L.,Thermal Power Research Institute | Wang J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Dai Y.,Xi'an Jiaotong University
Energy | Year: 2012

The industrial waste heat parameters, like flow rate and temperature, usually fluctuate in a certain range due to the variation of upstream industrial process. However, the heat recovery systems are usually designed not under the fluctuation range but under a specific point, therefore, the most reasonable design condition of the waste heat should be estimated based on the fluctuation ranges. A single pressure waste heat recovery system was studied in this paper. Static models were developed for system design and dynamic models were established to simulate the system transient performance when the temperature or flow rate of exhaust gas fluctuates. Systems designed at different exhaust gas parameters were operated under the same fluctuation condition to find out which one could generate the maximum net power. The fluctuations of temperature and flow rate of exhaust gas were studied separately. The results show that systems designed at the upper boundary of fluctuation range of exhaust gas could generate more power. In the case of temperature fluctuation of exhaust gas, the optimal turbine inlet pressure obtained by dynamic analysis is 7.9% lower than that of static analysis. It is 4.6% higher than that of static analysis in the case of flow rate fluctuation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang Y.-G.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Zhao Q.-X.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Zhang Z.-X.,Thermal Power Research Institute | Zhang Z.-C.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Tao W.-Q.,Xi'an Jiaotong University
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2013

In order to study the coupling mechanism between ash deposition and dew point corrosion, five kinds of tube materials frequently used as anti-dew point corrosion materials were selected as research objects. Dew point corrosion and ash deposition experiments were performed with a new type experimental device in a Chinese thermal power plant. The microstructures of the materials and the composition of ash deposition were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the ash deposition layer could be divided into non-condensation zone, the main condensation zone and the secondary condensation zone. The acid vapor condensed in the main condensation zone rather than directly on the tube wall surface. The dew point corrosion mainly is oxygen corrosion under the condition of the viscosity ash deposition, and the corrosion products are composed of the ash and acid reaction products in the outer layer, iron sulfate in the middle layer, and iron oxide in the inner layer. The innermost layer is the main corrosion layer. With the increase of the tube wall temperature, the ash deposition changes from the viscosity ash deposition to the dry loose ash deposition, the ash deposition rate decreases dramatically and dew point corrosion is alleviated efficiently. The sulfuric dew point corrosion resistance of the five test materials is as follows: 316L > ND > Corten>20G > 20# steel. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li M.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Wang J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | He W.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Gao L.,Thermal Power Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013

Higher efficiencies and optimal utilization of geothermal energy require a careful analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) which is suitable for converting electric power from low-temperature heat sources. The objective of this study is to experimentally analyze the effect of varying working fluid mass flow rate and the regenerator on the efficiency of the regenerative ORC operating on R123. As R123 presents a low boiling point temperature (27.82 °C), a technology was invented to address the leakage issue when transferring R123 between the inside and outside of the regenerative ORC system. A specially manufactured throttle valve was adopted in the bypass subsystem to protect the turbine during the starting and closing processes and a novel phenomenon was discovered during the test. A preliminary test of the system was conducted with a geothermal source temperature of 130 °C. The experimental results show that the power output is 6 kW and the regenerative ORC efficiency is 7.98%, which is higher than that of the basic ORC by 1.83%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Li C.-J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Li Y.,Thermal Power Research Institute | Yang G.-J.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Li C.-X.,Xi'an Jiaotong University
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology | Year: 2013

The failure of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC) usually occurs through spalling of ceramic coating. The crack evolution during thermal cycling of TBC is directly associated with its spalling. In this paper, the cracks in TBC along the direction of the interface between ceramic coating and bond coat were examined from cross-section of TBC experienced different numbers of thermal cycle, and crack number and the total length of cracks were measured to aim at understanding the failure mechanism. TBC consists of cold-sprayed NiCoCrAlTaY bond coat on IN738 superalloy and double layered plasma-sprayed 8YSZ with a columnar grain structured YSZ interlayer of about 20 μm thick and about 230 μm lamellar YSZ. With each isothermal cyclic test, the TBC samples were kept at 1150 C for 26 min hold and then cooled down to a temperature less than 80 C in 4 min by air forced cooling. Results showed that cracks propagated primarily within lamellar-structured YSZ over the columnar YSZ along lamellar interface. The measurement from the cross-section revealed that crack number and total crack length apparently increased with the increase of the number of thermal cycle. It was found that cracks with a length less than a typical size of 200 μm accounted for the majority of cracks despite the number of thermal cycle during the test. A crack initiation and propagation model for plasma-sprayed TBC is proposed with a uniform distribution of circular cracks. The propagatable cracks form homogeneously within plasma-sprayed porous YSZ coating at the early stage of thermal cycling and propagate at an identical rate during thermal cycling. Only a few of large cracks are formed before most cracks reach to the critical size for multi-cracks linking-up. The propagation of most cracks to the critical size will leads to the rapid crack bridging and subsequent spalling of top ceramic TBC. © 2013 ASM International.

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