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Durgāpur, India

Salazar J.,University of Valladolid | Valverde L.,Thermal Engineering Group | Tadeo F.,University of Valladolid
IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference) | Year: 2013

A proposal for optimal control of a microgrid powered by solar energy with mixed temporary storage based on a battery bank and hydrogen is presented and evaluated here by means of simulations. The proposal is based on a Predictive Controller that optimizes the operational costs by taking into account the value of the energy generated, the cost of locally storing energy, the aging of the components and the operational constraints. The Constrained Mixed-Integer Predictive Control problem obtained is then solved using a formulation based on the duration of the states, which simplifies the numerical solution. Some simulation results are presented to show the validity of the proposed approach. © 2013 IEEE.

Puncochar M.,Environmental Process Engineering Laboratory | Ruj B.,Thermal Engineering Group | Chatterjee P.K.,Thermal Engineering Group
CHISA 2012 - 20th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering and PRES 2012 - 15th Conference PRES | Year: 2012

Plasma pyrolysis is an innovative technology for transforming high calorific plastic waste into a valuable synthesis gas (syngas) by means of thermal plasma. The process developed is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperature in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input plastic waste into syngas, composed of very simple molecules, i.e., CO, H2, and hydrocarbons. A 20 kg/hr capacity plasma arc pyrolyzer for treatment of plastic waste as well as energy recovery options from waste plastic was designed, developed, and installed. Its performance at the Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CSIR), Durgapur, in India, was studied. After pyrolysis of plastic waste in the plasma arc reactor, generated hot gases (syngas) are quenched through water scrubbing to avoid recombination reactions of gaseous molecules that inhibit the formation of toxic gases. The developed plasma pyrolyzer might be a useful way of plastic waste treatment for energy recovery. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the CHISA 2012 - 20th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering and PRES 2012 - 15th Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (Prague, Czech Republic 8/25-29/2012).

Petrollese M.,University of Cagliari | Valverde L.,Thermal Engineering Group | Cocco D.,University of Cagliari | Cau G.,University of Cagliari | Guerra J.,Thermal Engineering Group
Applied Energy | Year: 2016

This paper presents a novel control strategy for the optimal management of microgrids with high penetration of renewable energy sources and different energy storage systems. The control strategy is based on the integration of optimal generation scheduling with a model predictive control in order to achieve both long and short-term optimal planning. In particular, long-term optimization of the various microgrid components is obtained by the adoption of an optimal generation scheduling, in which a statistical approach is used to take into account weather and load forecasting uncertainties. The real-time management of the microgrid is instead entrusted to a model predictive controller, which has the important feature of using the results obtained by the optimal generation scheduling. The proposed control strategy was tested in a laboratory-scale microgrid present at the University of Seville, which is composed of an electronic power source that emulates a photovoltaic system, a battery bank and a hydrogen production and storage system. Two different experimental tests that simulate a summer and a winter day were carried out over a 24-h period to verify the reliability and performance enhancement of the control system. Results show an effective improvement in performance in terms of reduction of the microgrid operating cost and greater involvement of the hydrogen storage system for the maintenance of a spinning reserve in batteries. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Iranzo A.,Thermal Engineering Group | Munoz M.,INTA National Institute for Aerospace Technology | Pino F.J.,Thermal Engineering Group | Rosa F.,Thermal Engineering Group
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

AC impedance or electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is becoming a fundamental technique used by researchers and scientists in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell analysis and development. In this work, in situ impedance measurements are presented for a series of operating conditions in a 50 cm2 fuel cell. The electrode charge transfer resistance was determined from the corresponding arcs of the Nyquist diagrams. The analyses were performed for H2/O2 and H2/air operation at different stoichiometric factors and reactant gases humidification. Characteristic time scales of charge transfer processes at the different operating conditions were estimated from the corresponding Bode plots. These values were used for a non-dimensional analysis of the different fuel cell electrochemical and transport processes, namely electrochemical reaction versus GDL reactant transport. Fuel cell adapted Damkhöler numbers are thus presented, where the results indicate that the GDL diffusion transport is the limiting process for the cases under analysis, especially when air is used as oxidant. Additional analysis of channel convective mass transport versus GDL diffusive mass transport is also presented. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pino F.J.,Thermal Engineering Group | Valverde L.,Thermal Engineering Group | Rosa F.,Thermal Engineering Group
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

Current simulation tools used to analyze, design and size wind-hydrogen hybrid systems, have several common characteristics: all use manufacturer wind turbine power curve (obtained from UNE 61400-12) and always consider electrolyzer operating in nominal conditions (not taking into account the influence of thermal inertia and operating temperature in hydrogen production). This article analyzes the influence of these parameters. To do this, a mathematical wind turbine model, that represents the manufacturer power curve to the real behaviour of the equipment in a location, and a dynamic electrolyzer model are developed and validated. Additionally, hydrogen production in a wind-hydrogen system operating in "wind-balance" mode (adjusting electricity production and demand at every time step) is analyzed. Considering the input data used, it is demonstrated that current simulation tools present significant errors in calculations. When using the manufacturer wind turbine power curve: the electric energy produced by the wind turbine, and the annual hydrogen production in a wind-hydrogen system are overestimated by 25% and 33.6%, respectively, when they are compared with simulation results using mathematical models that better represent the real behaviour of the equipments. Besides, considering electrolyzer operating temperature constant and equal to nominal, hydrogen production is overestimated by 3%, when compared with the hydrogen production using a dynamic electrolyzer model. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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