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Winn A.,Thermal Ceramics UK Ltd.
Glass International | Year: 2011

The results of the tests undertaken to understand the importance of insulating firebricks (IFB) in minimizing energy loss were investigated. Two electrically heated laboratory muffle kilns of identical design and power rating were commissioned, in which one was lined with the cast IFB and the other was lined with the Cement IFB. The cement IFB has large quantities of relatively large holes in the structure, ranging from 700 to 1300 micron and the cast and cement IFB display similar pore sizes in the mid-size range, around 50 micron diameter. The large pore sizes in the cement IFB were found to be inefficient at retarding energy transfer at the infra-red wavelengths involved but the microporous structure of the cast IFB, with its small pore sizes, was much more efficient at interfering with energy transfer at infra red wavelengths. The use of lower thermal conductivity cast IFB ensures that the outer temperature of the kiln is lower which results in the reduced emission of carbon dioxide. Source


Wynn A.,Thermal Ceramics UK Ltd. | Magni E.,Thermal Ceramics Italiana s.r.l. | Marchetti M.,Thermal Ceramics Italiana s.r.l. | Chernack S.,Thermal Ceramics Inc. | Johnson C.,Thermal Ceramics Inc.
InterCeram: International Ceramic Review | Year: 2012

Insulating Firebricks are manufactured by various techniques (casting, slinger, extrusion, foaming, pressing, etc.) and the brick chemistries and microstructures produced can be very different. This leads to a wide variety of thermal conductivities available within products of the same temperature rating and results in a wide variation in the ability of the different types of IFBs to control energy loss from an application. This article reports the findings of a study by Morgan Thermal Ceramics to quantify the differences in energy usage that can be achieved with the three main types of IFB available on the market (cast, slinger and extruded) within Class 23 and Class 26 IFBs. Source


Wynne A.,Thermal Ceramics UK Ltd.
Foundry Trade Journal | Year: 2010

The differences in performance that can be achieved by studying a wide range of insulating firebricks (IFB) available was investigated through laboratory based measurements of energy losses from standard kiln arrangements constructed with a variety of test bricks. A kiln builder was commissioned to manufacture two electrically heated laboratory muffle kilns of identical design and power rating. For each kiln, power meters were set up between the power source and the kiln to measure the energy usage during the controlled test firings. The results show that the cast IFB has a much finer microstructure which has large quantities of relatively large holes in the structure, ranging from 700 to 1300 micron. It is concluded that when selecting insulating refractory products for furnace linings, attention should be paid to the reported thermal conductivity of IFB products. Source


Wynn A.,Thermal Ceramics UK Ltd. | Coppack J.,Thermal Ceramics UK Ltd. | Steele T.,Thermal Ceramics UK Ltd. | Moody K.,Thermal Ceramics Inc.
TMS Light Metals | Year: 2011

To remain competitive, aluminum producers continue to increase productivity through their Melt-Hold furnaces. Increasing heat input to the furnace using more powerful burners is common practice. But faster melting leads to increased metal losses from surface oxidation and to segregation from large heat gradients. These effects are countered by increased use of fluxes and increased stirring. Given the increasingly challenging environment within which the refractory lining has to work, traditional lining solutions can no longer be relied upon to provide the service lives that were previously achieved. Therefore, a new generation of furnace lining materials is required to cope with today's aluminum furnace. This work reports on a new monolithic material with improved performance, compared to existing materials, designed for use in the ramp/hearth area of aluminum furnaces. Improved behavior against the critical performance criteria in this furnace region are demonstrated in the laboratory using industry standard test methods. Source


Wynn A.,Thermal Ceramics UK Ltd. | Coppack J.,Thermal Ceramics UK Ltd. | Steele T.,Thermal Ceramics UK Ltd. | Latter G.,Thermal Ceramics Australia Pty Ltd
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2011

Monolithic refractories are now well established as linings for a range of holding and melting applications for the processing of aluminium. The refractory lining in an aluminium furnace has to withstand a wide variety of physical and chemical environments. Each of the different furnace zones presents a different set of operating conditions, in terms of peak temperature, temperature fluctuation, metal contact, flux contact, impact from ingot loading, etc. Therefore, in order for a monolithic material to successfully perform in a particular area of the furnace, it needs to be able to cope with the specific environmental conditions in that region of the furnace. Aluminium producers continue to increase productivity through their Melt-Hold furnaces to maintain competitiveness. The use of more powerful burners to increase heat input to the furnace is therefore becoming increasingly common practice. But faster melting leads to increased metal losses from surface oxidation and to segregation from large heat gradients. These effects are countered by increased use of fluxes and increased stirring. Given the increasingly challenging environment within which the refractory lining has to work, traditional lining solutions can no longer be relied upon to provide the service lives that were previously achieved. Therefore, a new generation of furnace lining materials is required to cope with today's aluminium furnace. This paper describes one such newly developed monolithic material, designed specifically to improve performance in the superstructure zone of Aluminium furnaces. The non-metal contact, superstructure regions of aluminium furnaces present their own unique set of challenges for the refractory lining. Refractories in these regions - roof, upper walls and flue - have to cope with excessively high levels of alkali vapour and thermal shock. This paper reviews the operating conditions found in the superstructure areas of a typical melting and holding furnace and the implications these have on monolithic lining material design and performance. The improved behaviour of the newly developed monolithic material against the critical performance criteria in these furnace regions is demonstrated in the laboratory, compared to existing industry leading materials, using industry standard test methods. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

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