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University of Technology of Compiègne, France

Buron N.,Theraptosis SA | Buron N.,Mitologics SAS | Porceddu M.,Theraptosis SA | Porceddu M.,Mitologics SAS | And 11 more authors.

Current limitations of chemotherapy include toxicity on healthy tissues and multidrug resistance of malignant cells. A number of recent anti-cancer strategies aim at targeting the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery to induce tumor cell death. In this study, we set up protocols to purify functional mitochondria from various human cell lines to analyze the effect of peptidic and xenobiotic compounds described to harbour either Bcl-2 inhibition properties or toxic effects related to mitochondria. Mitochondrial inner and outer membrane permeabilization were systematically investigated in cancer cell mitochondria versus non-cancerous mitochondria. The truncated (t-) Bid protein, synthetic BH3 peptides from Bim and Bak, and the small molecule ABT-737 induced a tumor-specific and OMP-restricted mitochondrio-toxicity, while compounds like HA-14.1, YC-137, Chelerythrine, Gossypol, TW-37 or EM20-25 did not. We found that ABT-737 can induce the Bax-dependent release of apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c, Smac/Diablo and Omi/HtrA2 but not AIF) from various but not all cancer cell mitochondria. Furthermore, ABT-737 addition to isolated cancer cell mitochondria induced oligomerization of Bax and/or Bak monomers already inserted in the mitochondrial membrane. Finally immunoprecipatations indicated that ABT-737 induces Bax, Bak and Bim desequestration from Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL but not from Mcl-1L. This study investigates for the first time the mechanism of action of ABT-737 as a single agent on isolated cancer cell mitochondria. Hence, this method based on MOMP (mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization) is an interesting screening tool, tailored for identifying Bcl-2 antagonists with selective toxicity profile against cancer cell mitochondria but devoid of toxicity against healthy mitochondria. Copyright: © 2010 Buron et al. Source

Lecoeur H.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Borgne-Sanchez A.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Borgne-Sanchez A.,Theraptosis SA | Borgne-Sanchez A.,Mitologics SAS | And 26 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease

The Trans-activator protein (Tat) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a pleiotropic protein involved in different aspects of AIDS pathogenesis. As a number of viral proteins Tat is suspected to disturb mitochondrial function. We prepared pure synthetic full-length Tat by native chemical ligation (NCL), and Tat peptides, to evaluate their direct effects on isolated mitochondria. Submicromolar doses of synthetic Tat cause a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ m) as well as cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from mouse liver, heart, and brain. Accordingly, Tat decreases substrate oxidation by mitochondria isolated from these tissues, with oxygen uptake being initially restored by adding cytochrome c. The anionchannel inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2, 2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS) protects isolated mitochondria against Tat-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), whereas ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor blocker, does not. Pharmacologic inhibitors of the permeability transition pore, Bax/Bak inhibitors, and recombinant Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins do not reduce Tat-induced MMP. We finally observed that Tat inhibits cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in disrupted mitochondria isolated from liver, heart, and brain of both mouse and human samples, making it the first described viral protein to be a potential COX inhibitor. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Gallerne C.,University of Versailles | Touat Z.,University of Versailles | Chen Z.X.,National University of Singapore | Martel C.,University of Versailles | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology

The adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) is a mitochondrial bi-functional protein, which catalyzes the exchange of ADP and ATP between cytosol and mitochondria and participates in many models of mitochondrial apoptosis. The human adenine nucleotide translocator sub-family is composed of four isoforms, namely ANT1-4, encoded by four nuclear genes, whose expression is highly regulated. Previous studies have revealed that ANT1 and 3 induce mitochondrial apoptosis, whereas ANT2 is anti-apoptotic. However, the role of the recently identified isoform ANT4 in the apoptotic pathway has not yet been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of stable heterologous expression of the ANT4 on proliferation, mitochondrial respiration and cell death in human cancer cells, using ANT3 as a control of pro-apoptotic isoform. As expected, ANT3 enhanced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in response to lonidamine, a mitochondriotoxic chemotherapeutic drug, and staurosporine, a protein kinase inhibitor. Our results also indicate that the pro-apoptotic effect of ANT3 was accompanied by decreased rate of cell proliferation, alteration in the mitochondrial network topology, and decreased reactive oxygen species production. Of note, we demonstrate for the first time that ANT4 enhanced cell growth without impacting mitochondrial network or respiration. Moreover, ANT4 differentially regulated the intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide without affecting superoxide anion levels. Finally, stable ANT4 overexpression protected cancer cells from lonidamine and staurosporine apoptosis in a manner independent of Bcl-2 expression. These data highlight a hitherto undefined cytoprotective activity of ANT4, and provide a novel dichotomy in the human ANT isoform sub-family with ANT1 and 3 isoforms functioning as pro-apoptotic while ANT2 and 4 isoforms render cells resistant to death inducing stimuli. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Chauvier D.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Chauvier D.,Theraptosis SA | Renolleau S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Renolleau S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 46 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease

Brain protection of the newborn remains a challenging priority and represents a totally unmet medical need. Pharmacological inhibition of caspases appears as a promising strategy for neuroprotection. In a translational perspective, we have developed a pentapeptide-based group II caspase inhibitor, TRP601/ORPHA133563, which reaches the brain, and inhibits caspases activation, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and apoptosis in vivo. Single administration of TRP601 protects newborn rodent brain against excitotoxicity, hypoxia-ischemia, and perinatal arterial stroke with a 6-h therapeutic time window, and has no adverse effects on physiological parameters. Safety pharmacology investigations, and toxicology studies in rodent and canine neonates, suggest that TRP601 is a lead compound for further drug development to treat ischemic brain damage in human newborns. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

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