Rao V.A.,Therapeutic Proteins
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2013
Significance: Iron and topoisomerases are abundant and essential cellular components. Iron is required for several key processes such as DNA synthesis, mitochondrial electron transport, synthesis of heme, and as a co-factor for many redox enzymes. Topoisomerases serve as critical enzymes that resolve topological problems during DNA synthesis, transcription, and repair. Neoplastic cells have higher uptake and utilization of iron, as well as elevated levels of topoisomerase family members. Separately, the chelation of iron and the cytotoxic inhibition of topoisomerase have yielded potent anticancer agents. Recent Advances: The chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and dexrazoxane both chelate iron and target topoisomerase 2 alpha (top2α). Newer chelators such as di-2-pyridylketone-4,4,-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone and thiosemicarbazone-24 have recently been identified as top2α inhibitors. The growing list of agents that appear to chelate iron and inhibit topoisomerases prompts the question of whether and how these two distinct mechanisms might interplay for a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic outcome. Critical Issues: While iron chelation and topoisomerase inhibition each represent mechanistically advantageous anticancer therapeutic strategies, dual targeting agents present an attractive multi-modal opportunity for enhanced anticancer tumor killing and overcoming drug resistance. The commonalities and caveats of dual inhibition are presented in this review. Future Directions: Gaps in knowledge, relevant biomarkers, and strategies for future in vivo studies with dual inhibitors are discussed. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Donnelly R.P.,Therapeutic Proteins |
Kotenko S.V.,Rutgers University
Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research | Year: 2010
The discovery and initial description of the interferon-λ (IFN-λ) family in early 2003 opened an exciting new chapter in the field of IFN research. There are 3 IFN-λ genes that encode 3 distinct but highly related proteins denoted IFN-λ1, -λ2, and -λ3. These proteins are also known as interleukin-29 (IL-29), IL-28A, and IL-28B, respectively. Collectively, these 3 cytokines comprise the type III subset of IFNs. They are distinct from both type I and type II IFNs for a number of reasons, including the fact that they signal through a heterodimeric receptor complex that is different from the receptors used by type I or type II IFNs. Although type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) and type III IFNs (IFN-λ) signal via distinct receptor complexes, they activate the same intracellular signaling pathway and many of the same biological activities, including antiviral activity, in a wide variety of target cells. Consistent with their antiviral activity, expression of the IFN-λ genes and their corresponding proteins is inducible by infection with many types of viruses. Therefore, expression of the type III IFNs (IFN-λs) and their primary biological activity are very similar to the type I IFNs. However, unlike IFN-α receptors which are broadly expressed on most cell types, including leukocytes, IFN-λ receptors are largely restricted to cells of epithelial origin. The potential clinical importance of IFN-λ as a novel antiviral therapeutic agent is already apparent. In addition, preclinical studies by several groups indicate that IFN-λ may also be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for other clinical indications, including certain types of cancer. Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Therapeutic Proteins | Date: 2014-04-09
An aeration and mixing device for disposable flexible bioreactors comprising a mesh of interconnected perforated disposable tubes to form a structure to cover essentially the entire bottom surface of a disposable flexible bioreactor and wherein a continuous flow of gases through the perforations in the tubes provides an aeration and a mixing function.
Therapeutic Proteins | Date: 2015-05-20
A single-pass HVAC systems to isolate zones and to maintain a required clean air quality standard is provided that operates by producing a positive pressure in all zones, while exhausting on a minimal quantity of air required by law. The zones are kept clean by a recirculating fan filter in each zone. The exhaust air is used to exchange heat with incoming air to conserve energy further.
Therapeutic Proteins | Date: 2015-06-12
A method of homogenously mixing the contents of a plurality of bioreactors by providing a receiving container capable of holding an appropriate quantity of the liquid and repeatedly raising and lowering the receiving container to a position above or below the position of the bioreactors resulting in mixing the contents of the bioreactors.