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Lee H.-J.,Korea National Institute of Health | Jang H.B.,Korea National Institute of Health | Kim H.-J.,Korea National Institute of Health | Ahn Y.,Korea National Institute of Health | And 5 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2015

Background: Glucokinase regulator (GCKR) plays important roles in the regulation of glucokinase (GK) activity and the metabolism of glucose and lipids. We investigated whether the association between GCKR genetic variants with serum lipids in Korean adults is replicated in children, and whether these genetic influences might be modulated by dietary monounsaturated fatty acid relative to saturated fatty acid (MUFA:SFA) ratio. Methods: We genotyped 711 children for GCKR variants, used 7495 adults in KARE database, and analyzed anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary measurements. Results: The major allele carriers of rs780094 and rs780092 in adults had significantly higher serum total cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared to noncarriers. Five variants in children, including rs780094 and rs780092, correlated similarly with high total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. When the dietary MUFA:SFA ratio was dichotomized (MUFA:SFA. ≥. 1 or <. 1), the aggravating effects of the major allele on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were only evident in the group in which MUFA:SFA ratio was <. 1. Additionally, we observed that the GCKR haplotype with a functional variant, rs1260326, influenced lower total and LDL cholesterol in children whose MUFA:SFA ratio was <. 1. Conclusion: We replicated the genetic association effect of GCKR on total cholesterol in children, and found that the interaction effects between GCKR genetic variants and the dietary MUFA:SFA ratio on lipid levels, were commonly observed in Korean adults and children. © 2015. Source


Hu H.-J.,TheragenEtex Bio Institute Inc. | Park S.-G.,TheragenEtex Bio Institute Inc. | Jang H.B.,Korea National Institute of Health | Choi M.-G.,Hallym University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Obesity is an increasing public health concern worldwide. According to the latest Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report (2014), the incidence of child obesity in Korea has exceeded the OECD average. To better understand and control this condition, the present study examined the composition of the gut microbial community in normal and obese adolescents. Fecal samples were collected from 67 obese (body mass index [BMI] < 30 kg/m2, or < 99th BMI percentile) and 67 normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or < 85th BMI percentile) Korean adolescents aged 13-16 years and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Analysis of bacterial composition according to taxonomic rank (genus, family, and phylum) revealed marked differences in the Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in normal and obese samples (p < 0.005) at the genus and family levels; however, there was no difference in the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio between normal and obese adolescents samples at the phylum level (F/B normal = 0.50 ± 0.53; F/B obese = 0.56 ± 0.86; p = 0.384). Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the compositions of several bacterial taxa and child obesity. Among these, Bacteroides and Prevotella showed the most significant association with BMI (p < 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively). We also found that the composition of Bacteroides was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-crp) (p = 0.0049, 0.0023, and 0.0038, respectively) levels, whereas that of Prevotella was positively associated with TG and hs-crp levels (p = 0.0394 and 0.0150, respectively). We then applied the association rule mining algorithm to generate "rules" to identify the association between the populations of multiple bacterial taxa and obesity; these rules were able to discriminate obese from normal states. Therefore, the present study describes a systemic approach to identify the association between bacterial populations in the gut and childhood obesity. © 2015 Hu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Yoon K.,CHA Medical University | Lee S.,Personal Genomics Institute | Lee S.,TheragenEtex Bio Institute Inc. | Han T.-S.,Seoul National University | And 16 more authors.
Genome Research | Year: 2013

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a critical mechanism that drives genetic aberrations in cancer. To identify the entire MS mutation, we performed the first comprehensive genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses of mutations associated with MSI in Korean gastric cancer cell lines and primary tissues. We identified 18,377 MS mutations of five or more repeat nucleotides in coding sequences and untranslated regions of genes, and discovered 139 individual genes whose expression was down-regulated in association with UTR MS mutation. In addition, we found that 90.5% of MS mutations with deletions in gene regions occurred in UTRs. This analysis emphasizes the genetic diversity of MSI-H gastric tumors and provides clues to the mechanistic basis of instability in microsatellite unstable gastric cancers. © 2013, Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source

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