St. Louis, MO, United States
St. Louis, MO, United States

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Schardein J.L.,Schardein Consulting LLC | Birch R.,Ther Rx Corporation | Hesley R.,Hologic | Thorsrud B.A.,MPI Research
Birth Defects Research Part B - Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2012

To demonstrate reproductive safety of a new commercial product for reducing the risk of preterm birth, HPC (17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, Makena; manufactured by Baxter Pharmaceutical Solutions, Bloomington IN for Ther-Rx Corporation, St. Louis, MO) was administered intramuscularly in Charles River LaboratoryCD strain rats. HPC was given at intervals equal to the half-life measured in rats during three phases of embryo-fetal development: during the period of ovarian development (RP1, days 8, 14, and 20), following implantation of the embryo (TP, days 6, 12, and 18), and, corresponding to the start of the drug in week 16 or later in humans, after gonadal formation including differentiation of the testes (RP2, day 17). Dose levels up to 30× the human therapeutic doses were utilized including 0 (vehicle), 5, 25, and 150 mg/kg (volume 0.6 ml/kg). Four groups of 25 time-mated rats each were used for each phase. In addition, equal numbers of naïve (untreated) rats of opposite gender were used for F1 breeding studies. HPC did not produce any consistent test-article-related findings in the treated F0 dams, their developing F1 fetuses and did not affect the ability of the latter to produce a viable F2 generation. The F1 offspring did not evidence any adverse effects during their behavioral, sensory, and developmental assessments, including teratogenicity. Based on the cumulative data obtained from rats treated over two generations and during development in this study, the No-observable-effect-level (NOEL) was established as 150 mg/kg. This study supports the absence of reproductive toxicity with HPC in published studies in animal models and in human clinical trials. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Chollet J.L.,Ther Rx Corporation | Jozwiakowski M.J.,Ther Rx Corporation
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC) active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) sources that may be used by compounding pharmacies, compared to the FDA-approved source of the API; and to investigate the quality of HPC injection samples obtained from compounding pharmacies in the US, compared to the FDA-approved product (Makena®). Samples of API were obtained from every source confirmed to be an original manufacturer of the drug for human use, which were all companies in China that were not registered with FDA. Eight of the ten API samples (80%) did not meet the impurity specifications required by FDA for the API used in the approved product. One API sample was found to not be HPC at all; additional laboratory testing showed that it was glucose. Thirty samples of HPC injection obtained from compounding pharmacies throughout the US were also tested, and eight of these samples (27%) failed to meet the potency requirement listed in the USP monograph for HPC injection and/or the HPLC assay. Sixteen of the thirty injection samples (53%) exceeded the impurity limit set for the FDA-approved drug product. These results confirm the inconsistency of compounded HPC Injections and suggest that the risk-benefit ratio of using an unapproved compounded preparation, when an FDA-approved drug product is available, is not favorable. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Gudeman J.,Ther Rx Corporation | Jozwiakowski M.,Ther Rx Corporation | Chollet J.,Ther Rx Corporation | Randell M.,Northside Hospital
Drugs in R and D | Year: 2013

Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compounded drugs may pose additional risks to patients. FDA-approved drugs are made and tested in accordance with good manufacturing practice regulations (GMPs), which are federal statutes that govern the production and testing of pharmaceutical products. In contrast, compounded drugs are exempt from GMPs, and testing to assess product quality is inconsistent. Unlike FDA-approved drugs, pharmacy-compounded products are not clinically evaluated for safety or efficacy. In addition, compounded preparations do not have standard product labeling or prescribing information with instructions for safe use. Compounding pharmacies are not required to report adverse events to the FDA, which is mandatory for manufacturers of FDA-regulated medications. Some pharmacies engage in activities that extend beyond the boundaries of traditional pharmacy compounding, such as large-scale production of compounded medications without individual patient prescriptions, compounding drugs that have not been approved for use in the US, and creating copies of FDA-approved drugs. Compounding drugs in the absence of GMPs increases the potential for preparation errors. When compounding is performed on a large scale, such errors may adversely affect many patients. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk of microbial contamination to patients. In the last 11 years, three separate meningitis outbreaks have been traced to purportedly 'sterile' steroid injections contaminated with fungus or bacteria, which were made by compounding pharmacies. The most recent 2012 outbreak has resulted in intense scrutiny of pharmacy compounding practices and increased recognition of the need to ensure that compounding is limited to appropriate circumstances. Patients and healthcare practitioners need to be aware that compounded drugs are not the same as generic drugs, which are approved by the FDA. The risk-benefit ratio of using traditionally compounded medicines is favorable for patients who require specialized medications that are not commercially available, as they would otherwise not have access to suitable treatment. However, if an FDA-approved drug is commercially available, the use of an unapproved compounded drug confers additional risk with no commensurate benefit. © 2013 The Author(s).

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