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Abou-Elhakam H.,Cairo University | Rabee I.,Theodore Bilharz Research Institute | El Deeb S.,Cairo University | El Amir A.,Cairo University
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Yet no vaccine to protect ruminants against liver fluke infection has been commercialized. In an attempt to develop a suitable vaccine against Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) infection in rabbits, using 97 kDa Pmy antigen. It was found that, the mean worm burdens and bile egg count after challenge were reduced significantly by 58.40 and 61.40%, respectively. On the other hand, immunization of rabbits with Pmy induced a significant expression of humoral antibodies (IgM, total IgG, IgGl, IgG2 and IgG4) and different cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-oc). Among Ig isotypes, IgG2 and IgG4 were most dominant Post-infection (PI) while, recording a low IgGl level. The dominance of IgG2 and IgG4 suggested late T helperl (Thl) involvement in rabbit's cellular response. While, the low IgGl level suggested Th2 response to adult/7, gigantica worm Pmy. Among all cytokines, IL-10 was the highest in rabbits immunized with Pmy PI suggesting also the enhancement of Th2 response. It was clear that the native F. gigantica Pmy is considered as a relevant candidate for vaccination against fascioliasis. Also, these data suggested the immunoprophylactic effect of the native F. gigantica Pmy which is mediated by a mixed Thl/Th2 response. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Mahana N.,Cairo University | Abd-Allah H.A.-S.,Cairo University | Salah M.,Theodore Bilharz Research Institute | Tallima H.,American University in Cairo | El Ridi R.,Cairo University
Acta Tropica | Year: 2016

Infection of cattle and sheep with the parasite Fasciola gigantica is a cause of important economic losses throughout Asia and Africa. Many of the available anthelmintics have undesirable side effects, and the parasite may acquire drug resistance as a result of mass and repeated treatments of livestock. Accordingly, the need for developing a vaccine is evident. Triton-soluble surface membrane and tegumental proteins (TSMTP) of 60, 32, and 28 kDa previously shown to elicit protective immunity in mice against challenge F. gigantica infection were found to be strongly immunogenic in sheep eliciting vigorous specific antibody responses to a titer > 1:16,000 as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, the 60 kDa fraction induced production of antibodies able to bind to the surface membrane of newly excysted juvenile flukes and mediate their attrition in antibody-dependent complement- and cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays, and significant (P < 0.05) 40% protection of sheep against F. gigantica challenge infection. Amino acid micro sequencing of the 60 kDa-derived tryptic peptides revealed the fraction predominantly consists of F. gigantica enolase. The cDNA nucleotide and translated amino acid sequences of F. gigantica enolase showed homology of 92% and 95%, respectively to Fasciola hepatica enolase, suggesting that a fasciolosis vaccine might be effective against both tropical and temperate liver flukes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

El Ridi R.,Cairo University | Aboueldahab M.,Cairo University | Tallima H.,Cairo University | Salah M.,Theodore Bilharz Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

The development of arachidonic acid (ARA) for treatment of schistosomiasis is an entirely novel approach based on a breakthrough discovery in schistosome biology revealing that activation of parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) by unsaturated fatty acids, such as ARA, induces exposure of parasite surface membrane antigens to antibody binding and eventual attrition of developing schistosomula and adult worms. Here, we demonstrate that 5 mM ARA leads to irreversible killing of ex vivo 1-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old Schistosoma mansoni and 9-, 10-, and 12-week-old Schistosoma haematobium worms within 3 to 4 h, depending on the parasite age, even when the worms were maintained in up to 50% fetal calf serum. ARA-mediated worm attrition was prevented by nSMase inhibitors, such as CaCl 2 and GW4869. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that ARA-mediated worm killing was associated with spine destruction, membrane blebbing, and disorganization of the apical membrane structure. ARA-mediated S. mansoni and S. haematobium worm attrition was reproduced in vivo in a series of 6 independent experiments using BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice, indicating that ARA in a pure form (Sigma) or included in infant formula (Nestle) consistently led to 40 to 80% decrease in the total worm burden. Arachidonic acid is already marketed for human use in the United States and Canada for proper development of newborns and muscle growth of athletes; thus, ARA has potential as a safe and cost-effective addition to antischistosomal therapy. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Shaker O.,Cairo University | Hammam O.,Theodore Bilharz Research Institute | Wishahi M.,Theodore Bilharz Research Institute | Roshdi M.,Theodore Bilharz Research Institute
Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations | Year: 2013

Objectives: Study TGF-β1 pathway in bladder carcinoma. Design and methods: Eighty-one patients were enrolled: 16 chronic cystitis and 60 malignant bladder lesions; 15 schistosomal squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC), 45 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Five healthy individuals served as controls. mTGF-β1, protein, and its receptor expression in urine and bladder tissue were measured using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques, respectively. Results: Overexpression of TGF-mRNA in invasive TCC group was compared with superficial TCC, high grade TCC was compared with low grade, and SQCC was compared with TCC. TGF-β1 protein and its receptor I (TGF-βR1) were overexpressed in urine samples in malignant group compared with chronic cystitis and in SQCC group compared with TCC group. TGF-ß1 protein and its receptor were significantly increased in schistosomal malignant group compared with non-schistosomal group. Conclusion: Expression of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ßR1 could be used as biological markers of bladder carcinoma. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Abd Elreheim A.M.,Cairo University | Mahana N.,Cairo University | Rabee I.,Theodore Bilharz Research Institute | El Amir A.,Cairo University
Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The detection of Soluble Egg Antigen (SEA) in serum and urine could be more valuable in diagnosis; hence early treatment would be applied before irreparable damage occurs. In this study, Schistosoma (S.) eggs were isolated from the intestine of infected hamsters and purified by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified SEA was injected in rabbits to raise specific polyclonal antibodies (pAb) against S. haematobium. The purified pAb was further used as a primary capture to coat ELISA plates. The secondary capture of pAb was by conjugation with Horse-Raddish Peroxidase (HRP). According to parasitological examination, this study included 150 S. haematobium infected patients, 50 other parasites infected patients and 30 negative control samples. Latex Agglutination Technique (LAT) was performed for both serum and urine in comparison to sandwich and dot-ELISA on 150 infected individual. Comparison was evaluated between LAT, sandwich and Dot-ELISA in serum samples, it showed 92, 98 and 98.66% sensitivity and 92.50, 96.25 and 98.75% specificity, respectively, while in urine samples showed 88.66, 90.66 and 94.66% sensitivity and 91.25, 93.75 and 96.25% specificity, respectively. It was clear that, the sensitivity of LAT in urine was significantly higher than the parasitological examinations. From all data in this study and with consideration to sandwich and Dot-ELISA assays, LAT assay have an important value as an applicable, fast and accurate diagnostic technique for schistosomiasis in the field. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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