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Würzburg, Germany

Bensaad K.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | Favaro E.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | Lewis C.A.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Lewis C.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 15 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2014

An invivo model of antiangiogenic therapy allowed us to identify genes upregulated by bevacizumab treatment, including Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 (FABP3) and FABP7, both of which are involved in fatty acid uptake. Invitro, both were induced by hypoxia in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. There was a significant lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in hypoxia that was time and O2 concentration dependent. Knockdown of endogenous expression of FABP3, FABP7, or Adipophilin (an essential LD structural component) significantly impaired LD formation under hypoxia. We showed that LD accumulation is due to FABP3/7-dependent fatty acid uptake while de novo fatty acid synthesis is repressed in hypoxia. We also showed that ATP production occurs via β-oxidation or glycogen degradation in a cell-type-dependent manner in hypoxia-reoxygenation. Finally, inhibition of lipid storage reduced protection against reactive oxygen species toxicity, decreased the survival of cells subjected tohypoxia-reoxygenation invitro, and strongly impaired tumorigenesis invivo. © 2014 The Authors.

Ceteci F.,Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry | Xu J.,Theodor Boveri Institute | Ceteci S.,Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry | Zanucco E.,Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry | And 2 more authors.
Neoplasia | Year: 2011

Here we describe a novel conditional mouse lung tumor model for investigation of the pathogenesis of human lung cancer. On the basis of the frequent involvement of the Ras-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), we have explored the target cell availability, reversibility, and cell type specificity of transformation by oncogenic C-RAF. Targeting expression to alveolar type II cells or to Clara cells, the two likely precursors of human NSCLC, revealed differential tumorigenicity between these cells. Whereas expression of oncogenic C-RAF in alveolar type II cells readily induced multifocal macroscopic lung tumors independent of the developmental state, few tumors with type II pneumocytes features and incomplete penetrance were found when targeted to Clara cells. Induced tumors did not progress and were strictly dependent on the initiating oncogene. Deinduction of mice resulted in tumor regression due to autophagy rather than apoptosis. Induction of autophagic cell death in regressing lung tumors suggests the use of autophagy enhancers as a treatment choice for patients with NSCLC. © 2011 Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Stock M.,University of Lausanne | Lampert K.P.,Ruhr University Bochum | Moller D.,University of Hamburg | Schlupp I.,University of Hamburg | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

Despite the advantage of avoiding the costs of sexual reproduction, asexual vertebrates are very rare and often considered evolutionarily disadvantaged when compared to sexual species. Asexual species, however, may have advantages when colonizing (new) habitats or competing with sexual counterparts. They are also evolutionary older than expected, leaving the question whether asexual vertebrates are not only rare because of their 'inferior' mode of reproduction but also because of other reasons. A paradigmatic model system is the unisexual Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, that arose by hybridization of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana, as the maternal ancestor, and the sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna, as the paternal ancestor. Our extensive crossing experiments failed to resynthesize asexually reproducing (gynogenetic) hybrids confirming results of previous studies. However, by producing diploid eggs, female F 1-hybrids showed apparent preadaptation to gynogenesis. In a range-wide analysis of mitochondrial sequences, we examined the origin of P. formosa. Our analyses point to very few or even a single origin(s) of its lineage, which is estimated to be approximately 120 000 years old. A monophyletic origin was supported from nuclear microsatellite data. Furthermore, a considerable degree of genetic variation, apparent by high levels of clonal microsatellite diversity, was found. Our molecular phylogenetic evidence and the failure to resynthesize the gynogenetic P. formosa together with the old age of the species indicate that some unisexual vertebrates might be rare not because they suffer the long-term consequences of clonal reproduction but because they are only very rarely formed as a result of complex genetic preconditions necessary to produce viable and fertile clonal genomes and phenotypes ('rare formation hypothesis'). © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Baenke F.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Dubuis S.,ETH Zurich | Brault C.,Theodor Boveri Institute | Weigelt B.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2015

Metabolic reprogramming in cancer enhances macromolecule biosynthesis and supports cell survival. Oncogenic drivers affect metabolism by altering distinct metabolic processes and render cancer cells sensitive to perturbations of the metabolic network. This study aimed to identify selective metabolic dependencies in breast cancer by investigating 17 breast cancer cells lines representative of the genetic diversity of the disease. Using a functional screen, we demonstrate here that monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) is an important regulator of breast cancer cell survival. MCT4 supports pH maintenance, lactate secretion and non-oxidative glucose metabolism in breast cancer cells. Moreover, MCT4 depletion caused an increased dependence of cancer cells on mitochondrial respiration and glutamine metabolism. MCT4 depletion reduced the ability of breast cancer cells to grow in a three-dimensional (3D) matrix or as multilayered spheroids. Moreover, MCT4 expression is regulated by the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway and highly expressed in HER2-positive breast cancers. These results suggest that MCT4 is a potential therapeutic target in defined breast cancer subtypes and reveal novel avenues for combination treatment. © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

O'Meara E.,National Childrens Research Center | Stack D.,National Childrens Research Center | Lee C.-H.,Anatomical Pathology | Garvin A.J.,Wake forest University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

Clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK) is classified as a tumour of unfavourable histology by the National Wilms'Tumor Study Group. It has worse clinical outcomes than Wilms' tumour. Virtually nothing is known about CCSK biology, as there have been very few genetic aberrations identified to act as pointers in this cancer. Three cases of CCSK bearing a chromosomal translocation, t(10;17)(q22;p13), have been individually reported but not further investigated to date. The aim of this research was to characterize t(10;17)(q22;p13) in CCSK to identify the genes involved in the translocation breakpoints. Using fluorescently labelled bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and a chromosome-walking strategy on an index case of CCSK with t(10;17)(q22;p13) by karyotype, we identified the chromosomal breakpoints on 17p13.3 and 10q22.3. The translocation results in rearrangement of YWHAE on chromosome 17 and FAM22 on chromosome 10, producing an in-frame fusion transcript of ∼3 kb, incorporating exons 1-5 of YWHAE and exons 2-7 of FAM22, as determined by RT-PCR using YWHAE- and FAM22-specific primers. The YWHAE-FAM22 transcript was detected in six of 50 further CCSKs tested, therefore showing an overall incidence of 12% in our cohort. No transcript-positive cases presented with stage I disease, despite this being the stage for 31% of our cohort. Tumour cellularity was significantly higher in the cases that were transcript-positive. Based on the chromosome 10 breakpoint identified by FISH and the sequences of the full-length transcripts obtained, the FAM22 members involved in the translocation in these CCSK cases include FAM22B and FAM22E. Elucidation of the role of YWHAE-FAM22 in CCSK will assist development of more efficient and targeted therapies for this childhood cancer, which currently has poor outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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