Theodor Billroth Academy

München, Germany

Theodor Billroth Academy

München, Germany
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Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Stojadinovic A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Stojadinovic A.,International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor Billroth Academy | Stojadinovic A.,The United States Military Cancer Institute | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Peritoneal surface malignancy (PSM) is a frequent occurrence in the natural history of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although significant advances have been made in screening of CRC, similar progress has yet to be made in the early detection of PSM of colorectal cancer origin. The fact that advanced CRC can be confined to the peritoneal surface without distant dissemination forms the basis for aggressive multi-modality therapy consisting of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), and neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant systemic therapy. Reported overall survival with complete CRS+HIPEC exceeds that of systemic therapy alone for the treatment of PSM from CRC, underscoring the advantage of this multi-modality therapeutic approach. Patients with limited peritoneal disease from CRC can undergo complete cytoreduction, which is associated with the best reported outcomes. As early or limited peritoneal carcinomatosis is undetectable by conventional imaging modalities, second look laparotomy is an important means to identify disease in high-risk patients at a stage most amenable to complete cytoreduction. This review focuses on the identification of patients at risk for PSM from CRC and discusses the role of second look laparotomy. © Ivyspring International Publisher.


Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Lyman G.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 27 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Since the " War on Cancer" was declared in 1971, the United States alone has expended some $300 billion on research, with a heavy focus on the role of genomics in anticancer therapy. Voluminous data have been collected and analyzed. However, in hindsight, any achievements made have not been realized in clinical practice in terms of overall survival or quality of life extended. This might be justified because cancer is not one disease but a conglomeration of multiple diseases, with widespread heterogeneity even within a single tumor type.Discussion: Only a few types of cancer have been described that are associated with one major signaling pathway. This enabled the initial successful deployment of targeted therapy for such cancers. However, soon after this targeted approach was initiated, it was subverted as cancer cells learned and reacted to the initial treatments, oftentimes rendering the treatment less effective or even completely ineffective. During the past 30 plus years, the cancer classification used had, as its primary aim, the facilitation of communication and the exchange of information amongst those caring for cancer patients with the end goal of establishing a standardized approach for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. This approach should be modified based on the recent research to affect a change from a service-based to an outcome-based approach. The vision of achieving long-term control and/or eradicating or curing cancer is far from being realized, but not impossible. In order to meet the challenges in getting there, any newly proposed anticancer strategy must integrate a personalized treatment outcome approach. This concept is predicated on tumor- and patient-associated variables, combined with an individualized response assessment strategy for therapy modification as suggested by the patient's own results. As combined strategies may be outcome-orientated and integrate tumor-, patient- as well as cancer-preventive variables, this approach is likely to result in an optimized anticancer strategy.Summary: Herein, we introduce such an anticancer strategy for all cancer patients, experts, and organizations: Imagine a World without Cancer. © 2014 Brücher et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Kitajima M.,International University of Health and Welfare | Siewert J.R.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Cancer Investigation | Year: 2014

Global economies and their health systems face a huge challenge from cancer: 1 in 3 women and 1 in 2 men will develop cancer in their lifetime. In the less developed countries, the volume of cancer patients will overwhelm the existing healthcare systems. Even in developed regions, patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer usually present with locally advanced tumors that their prognosis is poor. A detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, epidemiology, tumor classifications and tumor growth is key understanding and evaluating the relevant research. We review undervalued criteria necessary to evaluate the response to multimodal therapy for upper GI cancers. Copyright © 2014 Informa Healthcare, Inc.


Man Y.-G.,Diagnostic and Translational Research Center | Man Y.-G.,Jilin University | Stojadinovic A.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Mason J.,Veterans Affair Medical Center | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. ©Ivyspring International Publisher.


Falch C.,University of Tübingen | Vicente D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Haberle H.,University of Tübingen | Kirschniak A.,University of Tübingen | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Pain (United Kingdom) | Year: 2014

Appropriate pain therapy prior to diagnosis in patients with acute abdominal pain remains controversial. Several recent studies have demonstrated that pain therapy does not negatively influence either the diagnosis or subsequent treatment of these patients; however, current practice patterns continue to favour withholding pain medication prior to diagnosis and surgical treatment decision. A systematic review of PubMed, Web-of-Science and The-Cochrane-Library from 1929 to 2011 was carried out using the key words of 'acute', 'abdomen', 'pain', 'emergency' as well as different pain drugs in use, revealed 84 papers. The results of the literature review were incorporated into six sections to describe management of acute abdominal pain: (1) Physiology of Pain; (2) Common Aetiologies of Abdominal Pain; (3) Pre-diagnostic Analgesia; (4) Pain Therapy for Acute Abdominal Pain; (5) Analgesia for Acute Abdominal Pain in Special Patient Populations; and (6) Ethical and Medico-legal Considerations in Current Analgesia Practices. A comprehensive algorithm for analgesia for acute abdominal pain in the general adult population was developed. A review of the literature of common aetiologies and management of acute abdominal pain in the general adult population and special patient populations seen in the emergency room revealed that intravenous administration of paracetamol, dipyrone or piritramide are currently the analgesics of choice in this clinical setting. Combinations of non-opioids and opioids should be administered in patients with moderate, severe or extreme pain, adjusting the treatment on the basis of repeated pain assessment, which improves overall pain management. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.


Wallace T.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Wallace T.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Avital I.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Stojadinovic A.,The Surgical Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Even with the technological advances of dose-escalated IMRT with the addition of the latest image guidance technologies, local failures still occur. The combination of MRI-based imaging techniques can yield quantitative information that reflects on the biological properties of prostatic tissues. These techniques provide unique information that can be used for tumor detection in the treated gland. With the advent of these improved imaging modalities, it has become possible to more effectively image local recurrences within the prostate gland. With better imaging, these focal recurrences can be differentially targeted with salvage brachytherapy minimizing rectal and bladder toxicity. Here we report a novel use of MRI-directed focal brachytherapy after local recurrence. This technique offers a unique opportunity to safely and successfully treat recurrent prostate cancer, previously treated with definitive radiation therapy. The use of multi-parametric MRI-directed focal salvage permanent interstitial brachytherapy for locally recurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a promising strategy to avoid more aggressive and expensive treatments that are associated with increased morbidity, potentially improving survival at potentially lower costs.©Ivyspring International Publisher.


Avital I.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Avital I.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences | Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Nissan A.,Rabin Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America | Year: 2012

Upwards of 40% of patient with colorectal cancer develop peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRCPC). Of the 2500 patients reported in the literature, 1000 underwent cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), resulting in median survival of 22 to 63 months. However, level I data from prospective randomized trials are limited. Further trials are indicated to identify peritoneal carcinomatosis in at-risk patients early in the natural history of the disease and confirm the efficacy of multimodality therapy (CRS/HIPEC/systemic therapy) in those with CRCPC amenable to CRS in the modern era of novel targeted and cytotoxic systemic therapy. © 2012.


Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Jamall I.S.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Jamall I.S.,Risk Based Decisions Inc.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Hysteron proteron reverses both temporal and logical order and this syllogism occurs in carcinogenesis and the somatic mutation theory (SMT): the first (somatic mutation) occurs only after the second (onset of cancer) and, therefore, observed somatic mutations in most cancers appear well after the early cues of carcinogenesis are in place. It is no accident that mutations are increasingly being questioned as the causal event in the origin of the vast majority of cancers as clinical data show little support for this theory when compared against the metrics of patient outcomes. Ever since the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA, virtually all chronic diseases came to be viewed as causally linked to one degree or another to mutations, even though we now know that genes are not simply blueprints, but rather an assemblage of alphabets that can, under non-genetic influences, be used to assemble a business letter or a work of Shakespearean literature. A minority of all cancers is indeed caused by mutations but the SMT has been applied to all cancers, and even to chemical carcinogenesis, in the absence of hard evidence of causality. Herein, we review the 100 year story of SMT and aspects that show why genes are not just blueprints, how radiation and mutation are associated in a more nuanced view, the proposed risk of cancer and bad luck, and the in vitro and in vivo evidence for a new cancer paradigm. This paradigm is scientifically applicable for the majority of non-heritable cancers and consists of a six-step sequence for the origin of cancer. This new cancer paradigm proclaims that somatic mutations are epiphenomena or later events occurring after carcinogenesis is already underway. This serves not just as a plausible alternative to SMT and explains the origin of the majority of cancers, but also provides opportunities for early interventions and prevention of the onset of cancer as a disease. © 2016 The Author(s).


Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Jamall I.S.,Theodor Billroth Academy | And 2 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Carcinogenesis is widely thought to originate from somatic mutations and an inhibition of growth suppressors, followed by cell proliferation, tissue invasion, and risk of metastasis. Fewer than 10% of all cancers are hereditary; the ratio in gastric (1%), colorectal (3-5%) and breast (8%) cancers is even less. Cancers caused by infection are thought to constitute some 15% of the non-hereditary cancers. Those remaining, 70 to 80%, are called " sporadic," because they are essentially of unknown etiology. We propose a new paradigm for the origin of the majority of cancers. Presentation of hypothesis: Our paradigm postulates that cancer originates following a sequence of events that include (1) a pathogenic stimulus (biological or chemical) followed by (2) chronic inflammation, from which develops (3) fibrosis with associated changes in the cellular microenvironment. From these changes a (4) pre-cancerous niche develops, which triggers the deployment of (5) a chronic stress escape strategy, and when this fails to resolve, (6) a transition of a normal cell to a cancer cell occurs. If we are correct, this paradigm would suggest that the majority of the findings in cancer genetics so far reported are either late events or are epiphenomena that occur after the appearance of the pre-cancerous niche.Testing the hypothesis: If, based on experimental and clinical findings presented here, this hypothesis is plausible, then the majority of findings in the genetics of cancer so far reported in the literature are late events or epiphenomena that could have occurred after the development of a PCN. Our model would make clear the need to establish preventive measures long before a cancer becomes clinically apparent. Future research should focus on the intermediate steps of our proposed sequence of events, which will enhance our understanding of the nature of carcinogenesis. Findings on inflammation and fibrosis would be given their warranted importance, with research in anticancer therapies focusing on suppressing the PCN state with very early intervention to detect and quantify any subclinical inflammatory change and to treat all levels of chronic inflammation and prevent fibrotic changes, and so avoid the transition from a normal cell to a cancer cell.Implication of the hypothesis: The paradigm proposed here, if proven, spells out a sequence of steps, one or more of which could be interdicted or modulated early in carcinogenesis to prevent or, at a minimum, slow down the progression of many cancers. © 2014 Brücher and Jamall; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Jamall I.S.,Theodor Billroth Academy | And 2 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

The delineation of key molecular pathways has enhanced our knowledge of the biology of tumor microenvironment, tumor dissemination, and carcinogenesis. The complexities of cell-cell communication and the possibilities for modulation provide new opportunities for treating cancers. Cells communicate by direct and indirect signaling. Direct cell-cell communication involves both, self-self-communication (intracrine and autocrine), and adjacent communication with nearby cells (juxtacrine), which themselves are regulated by distinct pathways. Indirect intercellular communication involves local communication over short distances (paracrine and synaptic signaling) or over large distances via hormones (endocrine). The essential components of cell-cell communication involve communication junctions (Connexins, Plasmodesmata, Ion Channels, Chemical Synapses, and Pannexins), occluding junctions (Tight Junctions), and anchoring junctions (Adherens, Desmosomes, Focal Adhesions, and Hemidesmosomes). The communication pathways pass through junctions at physical cell-cell attachments, and they go, as well, through the extracellular matrix (ECM) via the different transmembrane adhesion proteins (Cadherins and Integrins). We have here reviewed cell-cell communication involving (1) the components of junctions and their dynamic interplay with the other aspects of communication, including (2) the tumor microenvironment and carcinogenesis, (3) coupling and migration, (4) the underlying cell-cell and sub-cellular communication mechanisms (signaling) of anticancer treatments, and finally, (5) aspects of recent research on cell-cell communication. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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