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Masilamani V.,King Saud University | Vijmasi T.,Thendrel Incorporated | Al Salhi M.,King Saud University | Govindaraj K.,Cancer Hospital and Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2010

Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N= 100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%. © 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Source


Masilamani V.,King Saud University | Vijmasi T.,Thendrel Incorporated | Alsalhi M.,King Saud University | Govindarajan K.,GVN Cancer Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2011

In this paper we present the results of a study to distinguish cervical cancer patients [N=50] from healthy subjects [N=50] based on the Fluorescence Emission Spectra [FES] and Stokes' Shift Spectra [SSS] of blood and urine. FES was obtained from the cellular fraction of blood and urine by excitation at 400 nm. SSS was obtained from blood plasma and urine with Δλ of 70nm. In the FES of blood cellular fraction, the ratio of intensity of the two bands due to neutral porphyrin and basic porphyrin [I630 / I580] was 1 for normal controls and 3 for cervical cancers. In the SSS of plasma, the average ratio of intensity of the two bands due to tryptophan and collagen [I305 nm / I340 nm] was 1.9 for normal controls, 1.1 for early cervical cancers and 0.9 for advanced cervical cancers In the SSS of urine, the ratio of intensity of the two bands due to flavin and NADH [I450 nm / I360 nm] was 0.2 for normal controls and 0.8 for cancer patients. A discriminant analysis combining all three parameters showed a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78% for this technique. In this study we show that fluorescence spectroscopy of blood and urine could develop into a promising technique for non-invasive diagnosis and screening of cervical cancers and would appropriately supplement or complement currently used techniques. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source


Masilamani V.,King Saud University | Alsalhi M.S.,King Saud University | Vijmasi T.,Thendrel Incorporated | Govindarajan K.,GVN Cancer Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Optics | Year: 2012

In the current study, the fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and Stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood and urine samples of cervical cancer patients were obtained and compared to those of normal controls. Both spectra showed that the relative intensity of biomolecules such as porphyrin, collagen, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin were quite out of proportion in cervical cancer patients. The biochemical mechanism for the elevation of these fluorophores is not yet definitive; nevertheless, these biomolecules could serve as tumor markers for diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of cervical cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on FES and SSS of blood and urine of cervical cancer patients to give a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78%. © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source


Masilamani V.,King Saud University | Rabah D.,King Saud University | Alsalhi M.,King Saud University | Trinka V.,Thendrel Incorporated | Vijayaraghavan P.,King Saud University
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2011

In this preliminary report, benign (n = 8) and malignant (n = 5) prostate tissues, in vitro, have been taken through autofluorescence spectroscopy. Employing Stokes' shift spectra and fluorescence emission spectra as tools of analysis, we were able to discriminate the two sets of tissues with sensitivity and specificity in excess of 85%. When the excised prostate chips were scanned with a spatial resolution of 1 mm, the epicenter of malignancy also could be delineated. © 2010 The American Society of Photobiology. Source


AlSalhi M.,King Saud University | Masilamani V.,King Saud University | Trinka V.,Thendrel Incorporated | Elangovan M.,Thendrel Incorporated | And 2 more authors.
Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

This paper pertains to a new technique based on fluorescence emission spectra (FES), and stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood plasma, acetone extract of cellular fraction, and urine. These samples were collected from 60 cancer patients of different etiology and 60 age adjusted controls for a single blind study. A set of ratio parameters were obtained from the above spectra (FES and SSS of above three sets of samples), based on the relative intensity of biofluorophores like tryptophan, tyrosine, flavin etc. It was found that these biofluorophores go out of proportion for malignancy of any etiolology. The study was done in two phases: calibration and validation. Based on a certain set of ratios obtained by simple statistical analysis, in the calibration phase, the blinded samples of validation phase were spectrally analysed and classified as normal or malignant. The scoring done by independent oncologists (who were not involved in any part of this new technique) yielded an overall sensitivity of 87%, and specificity of 83%. The result indicate that new optical spectroscopic techniques could be a simple, non-invasive protocol for detection of cancers, particularly in symptomatic cases; or for monitoring the post treated cases of cancer. ©Adenine Press (2011). Source

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