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Asensio Ramos A.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Asensio Ramos A.,University of La Laguna | Lopez Ariste A.,THEMIS
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

Context. The image degradation produced by atmospheric turbulence and optical aberrations is usually alleviated using post-facto image reconstruction techniques, even when observing with adaptive optics systems. Aims. These techniques rely on the development of the wavefront using Zernike functions and the non-linear optimization of a certain metric. The resulting optimization procedure is computationally heavy. Our aim is to alleviate this computational burden. Methods. We generalize the extended Zernike-Nijboer theory to carry out the analytical integration of the Fresnel integral and present a natural basis set for the development of the point spread function when the wavefront is described using Zernike functions. Results. We present a linear expansion of the point spread function in terms of analytic functions, which, in addition, takes defocusing into account in a natural way. This expansion is used to develop a very fast phase-diversity reconstruction technique, which is demonstrated in terms of some applications. Conclusions. We propose that the linear expansion of the point spread function can be applied to accelerate other reconstruction techniques in use that are based on blind deconvolution. © 2010 ESO. Source


Asensio Ramos A.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Asensio Ramos A.,University of La Laguna | Lopez Ariste A.,THEMIS
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

We demonstrate, through numerical simulations with real data, the feasibility of using compressive sensing techniques for the acquisition of spectro-polarimetric data. This allows us to combine the measurement and the compression process into one consistent framework. Signals are recovered using a sparse reconstruction scheme from projections of the signal of interest onto appropriately chosen vectors, typically noise-like vectors. The compressibility properties of spectral lines are analyzed in detail. The results shown in this paper demonstrate that, thanks to the compressibility properties of spectral lines, it is feasible to reconstruct the signals using only a small fraction of the information that is measured nowadays. We investigate in depth the quality of the reconstruction as a function of the amount of data measured and the influence of noise. This change of paradigm also allows us to define new instrumental strategies and to propose modifications to existing instruments in order to take advantage of compressive sensing techniques. © ESO 2010. Source


Schmieder B.,Observatoire de Paris | Tian H.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Kucera T.,NASA | Lopez Ariste A.,THEMIS | And 4 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Context. A large prominence was observed by multiple instruments on the ground and in space during an international campaign on September 24, 2013, for three hours (12:12 UT-15:12 UT). Instruments used in the campaign included the newly launched (June 2013) Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), THEMIS (Tenerife), the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), and the Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph (MSDP) in the Meudon Solar Tower. The movies obtained in 304 Å with the EUV imager SDO/AIA, and in Ca II line by SOT show the dynamic nature of the prominence. Aims. The aim of this work is to study the dynamics of the prominence fine structures in multiple wavelengths to understand their formation. Methods. The spectrographs IRIS and MSDP provided line profiles with a high cadence in Mg II h (2803.5 Å) and k (2796.4 Å) lines along four slit positions (IRIS), and in Hα in a 2D field of view (MSDP). The spectropolarimetry of THEMIS (Tenerife) allowed us to derive the magnetic field of the prominence using the He D3 line depolarization (Hanle effect combined with the Zeeman effect). Results. The magnetic field is found to be globally horizontal with a relatively weak field strength (8-15 Gauss). On the other hand, the Ca II movie reveals turbulent-like motion that is not organized in specific parts of the prominence. We tested the addition of a turbulent magnetic component. This model is compatible with the polarimetric observations at those places where the plasma turbulence peaks. On the other hand, the Mg II line profiles show multiple peaks well separated in wavelength. This is interpreted by the existence of small threads along the line of sight with a large dispersion of discrete values of Doppler shifts, from 5 km s-1 (a quasi-steady component) to 60-80 km s-1. Each peak corresponds to a Gaussian profile, and not to a reversed profile as was expected by the present non-LTE radiative transfer modeling. This is a very surprising behavior for the Mg II line observed in prominences. Conclusions. Turbulent fields on top of the macroscopic horizontal component of the magnetic field supporting the prominence give rise to the complex dynamics of the plasma. The plasma with the high velocities (70 km s-1 to 100 km s-1 if we take into account the transverse velocities) may correspond to condensation of plasma along more or less horizontal threads of the arch-shape structure visible in 304 Å. The steady flows (5 km s-1) would correspond to a more quiescent plasma (cool and prominence-corona transition region) of the prominence packed into dips in horizontal magnetic field lines. The very weak secondary peaks in the Mg II profiles may reflect the turbulent nature of parts of the prominence. © 2014 ESO. Source


Schmieder B.,CNRS Laboratory for Space Studies and Astrophysical Instrumentation | Kucera T.A.,NASA | Knizhnik K.,NASA | Knizhnik K.,Johns Hopkins University | And 4 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Hα lines), Sac Peak (in Hα, Hβ, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ("Télescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires") with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D3 line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km s-1, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Casini R.,High Altitude Observatory | Ramos A.A.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Ramos A.A.,University of La Laguna | Lites B.W.,High Altitude Observatory | Ariste A.L.,THEMIS
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

We describe a simple technique for the acceleration of spectro-polarimetric inversions based on principal component analysis (PCA) of Stokes profiles. This technique involves the indexing of the database models based on the sign of the projections (PCA coefficients) of the first few relevant orders of principal components of the four Stokes parameters. In this way, each model in the database can be attributed a distinctive binary number of 24n bits, where n is the number of PCA orders used for the indexing. Each of these binary numbers (indices) identifies a group of "compatible" models for the inversion of a given set of observed Stokes profiles sharing the same index. The complete set of the binary numbers so constructed evidently determines a partition of the database. The search of the database for the PCA inversion of spectro-polarimetric data can profit greatly from this indexing. In practical cases it becomes possible to approach the ideal acceleration factor of 2 4n as compared to the systematic search of a non-indexed database for a traditional PCA inversion. This indexing method relies on the existence of a physical meaning in the sign of the PCA coefficients of a model. For this reason, the presence of model ambiguities and of spectro-polarimetric noise in the observations limits in practice the number n of relevant PCA orders that can be used for the indexing. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

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