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New Haven, CT, United States

Rozacky J.,University of Texas at Austin | Nemec A.A.,Florida State University | Sweasy J.B.,The Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center | Kidane D.,University of Texas at Austin
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

DNA polymerase beta (Pol β) is a key enzyme for the protection against oxidative DNA lesions via its role in base excision repair (BER). Approximately 1/3 of tumors studied to date express Pol β variant proteins, and several tumors overexpress Pol β. Pol β possesses DNA polymerase and dRP lyase activities, both of which are known to be important for efficient BER. The dRP lyase activity resides within the 8kDa amino terminal domain of Pol β, is responsible for removal of the 5' phosphate group (5'-dRP). The DNA polymerase subsequently fills the gaps. Previously, we demonstrated that the human gastric cancer-associated variant of Pol β (Leu22Pro (L22P)) lacks dRP lyase function in vitro. Here, we report that L22P-expressing cells harbor significantly increased replication associated DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and defective maintenance of the nascent DNA strand (NDS) during replication stress. Moreover, L22P-expressing cells are sensitive to PARP1 inhibitors, which suggests trapped PARP1 binds to the 5'-dRP group and blocks replications forks, resulting in fork collapse and DSBs. Our data suggest that the normal function of the dRP lyase is critical to maintain replication fork integrity and prevent replication fork collapse to DSBs and cellular transformation. Source

Kidane D.,The Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center | Dalal S.,The Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center | Keh A.,The Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center | Liu Y.,The Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center | And 2 more authors.
DNA Repair | Year: 2011

Maintaining genome integrity in germ cells is important, given that the germ cells produce the next generation of offspring. Base excision repair is a DNA repair pathway that is responsible for the repair of most endogenous DNA damage. A key enzyme that functions in this repair pathway is DNA polymerase beta (Pol β). We previously used conditional gene targeting to engineer mice with sperm deleted of the Pol B gene, which encodes Pol β. We characterized mutagenesis in the sperm of these mice and compared it to wild-type and mice heterozygous for the Pol B gene. We found that sperm obtained that were heterozygously or homozygously deleted of the Pol B gene exhibited increased mutation frequencies compared to wild-type sperm. We identified an increase in transition mutations in both heterozygously and homozygously deleted sperm, and the types of mutations induced suggest that a polymerase other than Pol β functions in its absence. Interestingly, most of the transversions we observed were induced only in heterozygous, compared with wild-type sperm. Our results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Pol β leads to increased frequencies and varieties of mutations. Our study also shows that Pol β is critical for genome stability in the germline. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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