Sonka S.,The Wright Institute
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review | Year: 2014
It seems that one can't go through a work day without seeing some mention of Big Data, its application and its potential to have unprecedented impact. The potential for Big Data application in the agricultural sector is examined. The role of analytics and the variety and velocity characteristics of Big Data as they can apply to the sector are stressed. Integration of data and analysis across business and government entities will be needed for successful implementation. The eventual impact of Big Data within the agricultural sector likely will require both organizational and technological innovation. © 2014 International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA).
Funder J.W.,The Wright Institute
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology | Year: 2015
For many years, primary aldosteronism was thought (and taught) to be a relatively rare (<1 %) and benign form of high blood pressure: now we know that neither is the case. Currently, the prevalence is considered to be 5–10 % of hypertensives, on the basis of more or less stringent cutoffs for the aldosterone/renin ratio and plasma aldosterone concentration: increasingly, evidence is mounting that the true prevalence of (relatively) autonomous aldosterone secretion may be ∼30 % of hypertensives. There is, in addition, a consensus that the risk profile for patients with primary aldosteronism is substantially higher than in age-, sex-, and blood pressure-matched essential hypertensives; the cardiovascular/renal damage in primary aldosteronism is thus not a primary effect of raised blood pressure. The nexus between salt and primary aldosteronism is clear, as equivalently raised or even higher levels of plasma aldosterone in chronic sodium deficiency are homeostatic and do not cause cardiovascular damage, thus ruling out deleterious effects of aldosterone acting alone. In primary aldosteronism the normal homeostatic feedback loops between sodium status and aldosterone levels are disturbed, so that cardiovascular/renal damage reflects inappropriate aldosterone levels for sodium status. One possible actor in such a scenario is endogenous ouabain (or similar compounds), which is elevated in the sodium-loaded state and a vasoconstrictor, and thus potentially be able both to raise blood pressure and to cause cardiovascular/renal damage. A second consideration is that of the epidemiologic data linking a chronically high salt intake to a raised blood pressure. If autonomous aldosterone secretion is in fact present in ∼30 % of hypertensives, this may be the group sensitive to the pressor effects of high salt, with the remainder much less affected. Finally, at a practical level given even the currently accepted prevalence of primary aldosteronism, a radical reconsideration of first-line antihypertensive therapy is proposed. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Brown K.A.,The Wright Institute |
Brown K.A.,Monash Institute of Medical Research |
Brown K.A.,Monash University
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia | Year: 2014
Obesity rates have risen dramatically over the past century, having nearly doubled since 1980. Changes in diet and lifestyle have contributed to this occurrence in younger women, and changing hormone levels during the menopausal transition has no doubt exacerbated the issue in older women. The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer is clear in postmenopausal women, and is intimately linked to the increased expression of aromatase and the production of estrogens within the breast adipose. This, in turn, is highly dependent on the localized chronic inflammation observed in obese adipose. This review will therefore explore the relationship between obesity, inflammation and estrogens, with a particular focus on the molecular regulation of aromatase in the postmenopausal breast in the context of obesity and breast cancer. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Gogineni S.,The Wright Institute |
Rangaswamy M.,Air Force Research Lab |
Rigling B.D.,Wright State University |
Nehorai A.,Washington University in St. Louis
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2014
Owing to the favorable ambiguity function properties and the increased deployment, mobile communications systems are useful for passive bistatic radar applications. Further, simultaneously using multiple illuminators in a multistatic configuration will improve the radar performance, providing spatial diversity and increased resolution. We compute modified Cramér-Rao lower bounds (MCRLB) for the target parameter (delay, Doppler) estimation error using universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) signals as illuminators of opportunity for passive multistatic radar systems. We consider both coherent and non-coherent processing modes. These expressions for MCRLB are an important performance metric in that they enable the selection of the optimal illuminators for estimation. © 2013 EU.
Taylor-Robinson D.,The Wright Institute
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy | Year: 2014
The discovery of Mycoplasma genitalium in 1980-1981 eventually led to it becoming recognized as an important cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men and also some genital tract diseases in women. Subsequent to the original isolation, further attempts failed over the next decade and reliable detection only became possible with the use of nucleic acid amplification techniques. Although tetracyclines, particularly doxycycline, were the first choice for treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis prior to the finding of M. genitalium, they were unsatisfactory for the treatment of M. genitalium-associated disease; the organisms were often not eliminated leading, for example, to chronic urethritis. However, the introduction of azithromycin, used as single-dose therapy for chlamydial infections, resulted in clearance of the mycoplasmal organisms from the genital tract and clinical recovery without the development of chronic disease. Nevertheless, such success was short-lived as M. genitalium, through mutation, began to develop resistance to azithromycin and M. genitalium mutants also began to circulate in some populations. In an attempt to counteract this, clinicians should give extended therapy, and in the future, microbiologists, using real-time PCRs, might be able to determine the existence of resistant strains in the local population and so advise on the most appropriate antibiotic. Other than azithromycin, there are a few options, moxifloxacin being one, although the recently reported resistance to this antibiotic is disturbing. In the short to medium term, combination therapy and/or the advent of a new antibiotic might abate the spread of resistance, but in the long term, there is potential for increasing prevalence of untreatable M. genitalium disease. In the future, attempts to develop a vaccine and, of equal importance, one to Chlamydia trachomatis, would not be out of place. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.