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Lusiana B.,University of Hohenheim | Lusiana B.,The World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asian Regional Office | van Noordwijk M.,The World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asian Regional Office | Cadisch G.,University of Hohenheim
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2012

Livestock as an integral part of farming systems can increase resource use efficiency and land use intensity of agricultural systems, but can also be a driver of forest conversion and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Forest policies that limit land use options may be able to halt forest change, if strongly enforced, but concurrently may also reduce livestock carrying capacity. This study explored the use of the spatially explicit FALLOW model, with a new livestock module, to assess the impact of land use zoning strategies, in combination with access to fodder harvesting, on welfare, fodder availability and landscape carbon stocks in the Upper Konto catchment, Indonesia. The existing land zoning in Upper Konto catchment is in name 'land-sparing' but de facto combined with 'land sharing' approach with access to cut and carry fodder sources in watershed protection areas. Scenario analysis revealed that the existing land zoning approach is the most promising in terms of balancing fodder availability, farmers' welfare (total profits gained from production in the landscape minus products consumed by people living in the area) and ecosystem functions (with above-ground carbon stocks as indicator). A pure land sparing approach with agricultural intensification indicates increase in farmers' welfare but with a higher decrease (in percentage) of landscape above-ground carbon stocks. Hence, careful integration of livestock systems into zoned conservation areas can achieve multiple goals including enhancing peoples' livelihoods and protecting environmental services. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Lusiana B.,University of Hohenheim | Lusiana B.,The World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asian Regional Office | van Noordwijk M.,The World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asian Regional Office | Johana F.,The World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asian Regional Office | And 3 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2014

This study combined uncertainty analysis of carbon emissions with local stakeholders' perspectives to develop an effective Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) scheme at the district level. Uncertainty of carbon emission estimates depends on scale while local stakeholders' views on plausible REDD+ schemes influence and limit transaction costs. The uncertainty analysis formed the basis for determining an appropriate scale for monitoring carbon emission estimates as performance measures for REDD+ incentives. Our analysis of stakeholder' perspectives explored (i) potential location and activities for lower emission development pathways, and (ii) perceived fair allocation of REDD+incentives. Our case study focused on frontier forest in Tanjung Jabung Barat District, Jambi, Indonesia. The uncertainty analysis used Monte Carlo simulation techniques using known inaccuracy of land cover classification and variation in carbon stocks assessment per land cover type. With decreasing spatial resolution of carbon emission maps, uncertainty in carbon estimates decreased. At 1 km2 resolution uncertainty dropped below 5%, retaining most of the coarser spatial variation in the district. Fairness, efficiency and transaction cost issues in the design of REDD+ mechanisms were readily recognized by local stakeholders, who converged on an equal allocation to short-term efficiency (emission reduction activities) and long-term fairness (alternative livelihood development). A striking difference occurred in desirable transaction costs (which include monitoring, reporting and verification), with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) aiming for 8%, while government and researchers accepted transaction costs of 40%. Feasible measures for emission reduction in the district, derived from a participatory planning process, are compatible with the 1 km2 spatial resolution of performance measures. © 2013 The Author(s).

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