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Sanchez-Martin L.,Technical University of Madrid | Dick J.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Bocary K.,The World Agroforestry Center | Vallejo A.,Technical University of Madrid | Skiba U.M.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology
Plant and Soil

Residual effects of different fertilizers (mineral and organic) on the first pulses of carbon dioxide (CO 2), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N 2O) after rewetting dry soil with or without application of a mineral N fertilizer were studied in a laboratory experiment. Six months before this study was conducted the fields had received either manure + urea, manure, urea or no fertilizer. In the first phase the soil was rewetted with water simulating a summer shower (heavy rainfall in short time) and in the second phase with a urea solution simulating a mineral fertilization. There were not significant differences in trace gas emissions between earlier field treatments after soil was rewetted with water addition. However, after urea addition, plots that had received manure 6 months earlier showed smaller total emissions of N 2O and NO compared to plots that had only received urea. The residual effect of manure can play an important role in carbon poor soils under arid-semiarid climate in mitigating atmospheric pollutants such us NO and N 2O. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009. Source

Arinloye D.-D.A.A.,The World Agroforestry Center | Pascucci S.,Wageningen University | Linnemann A.R.,Wageningen University | Coulibaly O.N.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Products Marketing

This article aims at analyzing Beninese smallholder famers’ selection of high value markets, such as export and processing-oriented marketing channels, in the pineapple supply chain. Four main marketing channels were investigated: rural, urban, and export fresh pineapple markets and processing-oriented markets. Primary data collected from 285 pineapple farmers through a field survey in different locations in South Benin were used to analyze simultaneous selection of multiple channels. A multivariate probit approach has been used in our empirical strategy. Farmers’ characteristics, production systems features, quality attributes, and types of marketing context have been used as main explanatory variables. Results indicate the Beninese pineapple farmers select market channels with high values when they have the expertise and know-how for coping and complying with quality issues. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Khan S.,The World Agroforestry Center | Khan S.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Khan S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Nadir S.,Yunnan University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

An insect-toxic protein, Bb70p, was purified from Beauveria bassiana 70 using ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Bb70p has a high affinity for anion exchangers and 2D electrophoresis results revealed a single spot with a molecular weight of 35.5. kDa and an iso-electric point of ~4.5. Bb70p remains active from 4 to 60. °C, within a pH range of 4-10, but is more active in slightly acidic pH. A pure protein, Bb70p does not have any carbohydrate side chains. The protein caused high mortality by intra-haemocelic injection into Galleria mellonella with LD50 of 334.4. μg/g body weight and activates the phenol oxidase cascade. With a partial amino acid sequence comparison using the NCBI database, we showed no homology to known toxin proteins of entomopathogenic fungi. Thus, Bb70p appears to be an insect toxin protein, demonstrating novelty. Identification of this insect-toxic protein presents potential to enhance the virulence of B. bassiana through genetic manipulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Dawson I.K.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Vinceti B.,Third University of Rome | Weber J.C.,The World Agroforestry Center | Neufeldt H.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | And 8 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems

Anthropogenic climate change has significant consequences for the sustainability and productivity of agroforestry ecosystems upon which millions of smallholders in the tropics depend and that provide valuable global services. We here consider the current state of knowledge of the impacts of climate change on tree genetic resources and implications for action in a smallholder setting. Required measures to respond to change include: (1) the facilitated translocation of environmentally-matched germplasm across appropriate geographic scales, (2) the elevation of effective population sizes of tree stands through the promotion of pollinators and other farm management interventions; and (3) the use of a wider range of 'plastic' species and populations for planting. Key bottlenecks to response that are discussed here include limitations in the international exchange of tree seed and seedlings, and the absence of well-functioning delivery systems to provide smallholders with better-adapted planting material. Greater research on population-level environmental responses in indigenous tree species is important, and more studies of animal pollinators in farm landscapes are required. The development of well-functioning markets for new products that farmers can grow in order to mitigate and adapt to anthropogenic climate change must also consider genetic resource issues, as we describe. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Dawson I.K.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Guariguata M.R.,Center for International Forestry Research | Loo J.,Third University of Rome | Weber J.C.,The World Agroforestry Center | And 8 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation

Smallholders' agroforests may be valuable for conserving tropical trees through three main mechanisms. First, trees planted and/or retained by farmers in agricultural landscapes where wild stands were once found may be circa situm reservoirs of biodiversity. Second, farmland trees may support conservation in situ by providing an alternative source of product to reduce extraction from forest, and by acting as 'corridors' or 'stepping stones' that connect fragmented wild stands. Third, the additional value that planting assigns to trees may result in greater interest in including them in seed collections, field trials and field 'genebanks' that support ex situ conservation. Here, we critically review the evidence for these mechanisms, and highlight areas for research and for intervention so that agroforestry practices can better support conservation in each setting, with an emphasis on often neglected genetic-level considerations. Based on current global challenges to diversity, conservation will need to rely increasingly on a smallholder-farm circa situm approach, but concerns on long-term effectiveness need to be properly quantified and addressed. Connectivity between widely dispersed, low density trees in agricultural landscapes is an important factor determining the success of the circa situm approach, while improving farmers' access to a diversity of tree germplasm that they are interested in planting is required. The circumstances in which agroforestry plantings can support in situ conservation need to be better defined, and research on the stability of active tree seed collections (how long are species and populations retained in them?) as ex situ reservoirs of biodiversity is needed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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