The World Agroforestry Center

Bamako, Mali

The World Agroforestry Center

Bamako, Mali
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SINGH M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | TAVVA S.,ICARDA | SAHARAWAT Y.S.,ICARDA | RIZVI J.,ICARDA | RIZVI J.,The World Agroforestry Center
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2017

Legumes are essential to meet nutrition need of growing population in Afghanistan but have low productivity under the farmer practices. With an aim to introduce improved varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and mung bean (Vigna radiata) along with associated cultivation practices, a number of on-farm demonstration trials were conducted in eight districts covering three provinces to assess their performance in comparison with local practices. The data or information generation from on-farm trials is routine but remains unutilized under the commonly used analysis based on frequentist approach. This study makes use of such prior information to widen the statistical inference framework using a Bayesian approach (BA) for analysing any future on-farm trials. The statistical analysis evaluated the mean performance of the improved and local production packages and risks associated with them to meet a given target. Evaluated at the two districts during 2012, the improved variety of chickpea (Madad) yielded higher than the farmer variety (2.25–2.40 vs. 1.93–1.94 Mg/ha), while that of mung bean (Mash 2008) yielded higher than the farmer variety (1.22–1.24 vs. 0.93–0.94 Mg/ha), both with high probability. The stochastic dominance analysis showed that the recommended package with improved variety Madad has 95% probability of achieving a target of 2 Mg/ha while such a target for local practice was around its one-third when cultivated in Baghlan-e-sannati district. Crossover in the risk curves helped to identify and quantify the region specific risk to meet a given target. BA is then recommended in the analysis of on-farm trials data. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Arinloye D.-D.A.A.,The World Agroforestry Center | Pascucci S.,Wageningen University | Linnemann A.R.,Wageningen University | Coulibaly O.N.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Products Marketing | Year: 2015

This article aims at analyzing Beninese smallholder famers’ selection of high value markets, such as export and processing-oriented marketing channels, in the pineapple supply chain. Four main marketing channels were investigated: rural, urban, and export fresh pineapple markets and processing-oriented markets. Primary data collected from 285 pineapple farmers through a field survey in different locations in South Benin were used to analyze simultaneous selection of multiple channels. A multivariate probit approach has been used in our empirical strategy. Farmers’ characteristics, production systems features, quality attributes, and types of marketing context have been used as main explanatory variables. Results indicate the Beninese pineapple farmers select market channels with high values when they have the expertise and know-how for coping and complying with quality issues. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Tavva S.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Aw-Hassan A.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Rizvi J.,The World Agroforestry Center | Saharawat Y.S.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Outlook on Agriculture | Year: 2017

Afghanistan is a net importer of wheat which is the staple food in the country. In order to improve the levels of food sufficiency, prevailing large yield gaps in wheat need to be reduced. This study assessed the reasons/factors influencing low wheat productivity and/or large yield gaps in different production systems in five major wheat-producing provinces in Afghanistan using a stochastic frontier production function model. The results indicated that the mean technical efficiency of wheat farmers was 0.67, and there was clear scope to improve wheat production by 33% in the short run with the same level of inputs. The potential yield gap could be reduced if adoption of good agricultural practices such as the use of improved wheat varieties with recommended seed rates was promoted through more effective transfer of technologies (training and extension) in the target provinces. Such efforts would help improve domestic wheat production and reduce dependency on wheat imports. © The Author(s) 2017.


Sanchez-Martin L.,Technical University of Madrid | Dick J.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Bocary K.,The World Agroforestry Center | Vallejo A.,Technical University of Madrid | Skiba U.M.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

Residual effects of different fertilizers (mineral and organic) on the first pulses of carbon dioxide (CO 2), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N 2O) after rewetting dry soil with or without application of a mineral N fertilizer were studied in a laboratory experiment. Six months before this study was conducted the fields had received either manure + urea, manure, urea or no fertilizer. In the first phase the soil was rewetted with water simulating a summer shower (heavy rainfall in short time) and in the second phase with a urea solution simulating a mineral fertilization. There were not significant differences in trace gas emissions between earlier field treatments after soil was rewetted with water addition. However, after urea addition, plots that had received manure 6 months earlier showed smaller total emissions of N 2O and NO compared to plots that had only received urea. The residual effect of manure can play an important role in carbon poor soils under arid-semiarid climate in mitigating atmospheric pollutants such us NO and N 2O. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.


Ofori D.A.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Gyau A.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Dawson I.K.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Asaah E.,The World Agroforestry Center | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2014

The domestication of new tree crops is one means for improving food and nutritional security. In the last decade, a participatory domestication approach involving scientists and farmers in close collaboration has been developed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on satisfying household needs for tree foods and then growing to meet wider demands. The approach, when practiced in mixed agroforestry regimes that promote yields and resilience, has resulted in significant improvements in incomes, diets and in rural business development. In the next decade, successful agroforestry tree domestication approaches require scaling-up and better engagement is needed with markets. The domestication of the edible oil-producing tree allanblackia provides a model for the involvement of private-public partnerships in sustainable business development. © 2014 Daniel A Ofori.


Ordonez J.C.,The World Agroforestry Center | Luedeling E.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Kindt R.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Tata H.L.,The World Agroforestry Center | And 4 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2014

On-farm tree diversity patterns result from a social-ecological process shaped by different actors. Farmer preferences, tree-site matching, seed dispersal, tree domestication and delivery via nurseries all play important roles in forming these patterns. As part of a wider interest in tree cover transition curves that link agroforestation stages of landscapes to a preceding deforestation process, we here focus on 'tree diversity transition curves' i. as a conceptual framework to understand current processes and how shifts in drivers affect tree diversity and ii. to help identify constraints and opportunities for interventions. We provide some examples of current research efforts and make suggestions for databases and analyzes that are required to improve our understanding of tree diversity transitions. We explore drivers, consequences and entry points for tree diversity management to achieve multifunctional agriculture. © 2013 The Authors.


Dawson I.K.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Vinceti B.,Third University of Rome | Weber J.C.,The World Agroforestry Center | Neufeldt H.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | And 8 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2011

Anthropogenic climate change has significant consequences for the sustainability and productivity of agroforestry ecosystems upon which millions of smallholders in the tropics depend and that provide valuable global services. We here consider the current state of knowledge of the impacts of climate change on tree genetic resources and implications for action in a smallholder setting. Required measures to respond to change include: (1) the facilitated translocation of environmentally-matched germplasm across appropriate geographic scales, (2) the elevation of effective population sizes of tree stands through the promotion of pollinators and other farm management interventions; and (3) the use of a wider range of 'plastic' species and populations for planting. Key bottlenecks to response that are discussed here include limitations in the international exchange of tree seed and seedlings, and the absence of well-functioning delivery systems to provide smallholders with better-adapted planting material. Greater research on population-level environmental responses in indigenous tree species is important, and more studies of animal pollinators in farm landscapes are required. The development of well-functioning markets for new products that farmers can grow in order to mitigate and adapt to anthropogenic climate change must also consider genetic resource issues, as we describe. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Khan S.,The World Agroforestry Center | Khan S.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Khan S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Nadir S.,Yunnan University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2016

An insect-toxic protein, Bb70p, was purified from Beauveria bassiana 70 using ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Bb70p has a high affinity for anion exchangers and 2D electrophoresis results revealed a single spot with a molecular weight of 35.5. kDa and an iso-electric point of ~4.5. Bb70p remains active from 4 to 60. °C, within a pH range of 4-10, but is more active in slightly acidic pH. A pure protein, Bb70p does not have any carbohydrate side chains. The protein caused high mortality by intra-haemocelic injection into Galleria mellonella with LD50 of 334.4. μg/g body weight and activates the phenol oxidase cascade. With a partial amino acid sequence comparison using the NCBI database, we showed no homology to known toxin proteins of entomopathogenic fungi. Thus, Bb70p appears to be an insect toxin protein, demonstrating novelty. Identification of this insect-toxic protein presents potential to enhance the virulence of B. bassiana through genetic manipulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Dawson I.K.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Guariguata M.R.,Center for International Forestry Research | Loo J.,Third University of Rome | Weber J.C.,The World Agroforestry Center | And 8 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2013

Smallholders' agroforests may be valuable for conserving tropical trees through three main mechanisms. First, trees planted and/or retained by farmers in agricultural landscapes where wild stands were once found may be circa situm reservoirs of biodiversity. Second, farmland trees may support conservation in situ by providing an alternative source of product to reduce extraction from forest, and by acting as 'corridors' or 'stepping stones' that connect fragmented wild stands. Third, the additional value that planting assigns to trees may result in greater interest in including them in seed collections, field trials and field 'genebanks' that support ex situ conservation. Here, we critically review the evidence for these mechanisms, and highlight areas for research and for intervention so that agroforestry practices can better support conservation in each setting, with an emphasis on often neglected genetic-level considerations. Based on current global challenges to diversity, conservation will need to rely increasingly on a smallholder-farm circa situm approach, but concerns on long-term effectiveness need to be properly quantified and addressed. Connectivity between widely dispersed, low density trees in agricultural landscapes is an important factor determining the success of the circa situm approach, while improving farmers' access to a diversity of tree germplasm that they are interested in planting is required. The circumstances in which agroforestry plantings can support in situ conservation need to be better defined, and research on the stability of active tree seed collections (how long are species and populations retained in them?) as ex situ reservoirs of biodiversity is needed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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