Multān, Pakistan
Multān, Pakistan

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PubMed | FHAS, The Women University Multan and Imperial College of Business Studies
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Viral immunology | Year: 2016

Viruses are the intracellular pathogens that reproduce only in the living cell and manipulate the cellular machinery to produce more viruses. Viral replications can affect cellular genes of the host in multiple cancerous ways. Approximately, 20% of all human oncogenesis is caused by cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses. Viral infection causes chronic inflammation leading to cell death, uncontrollable proliferation, and modulated expression of some of the regulatory proteins. Oncogenesis is a multistep phenomenon in which normal host cells are transformed into cancerous cells on the basis of host genetic variability. Oncogenic viruses encode genes that cause viral replication and transformation of the host cells to produce viral proteins and protein complexes. The phenomenon from basic viral infection to tumorigenesis is lengthy due to the involvement of factors like immunity complications, cellular mutations, and exposure to other cancerous agents. The viruses that are involved in human cancer development are Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Human papilloma virus (HPV), Kaposis sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV), and Human T lymphotrophic virus 1 (HTLV-1). This review article summarizes advanced knowledge related to human oncogenic viruses and the molecular mechanisms that lead to tumorigenesis in humans.


Shahzadi S.,University of Punjab | Shabana,University of Punjab | Chaudhry M.,University of Punjab | Arooj I.,The Women University Multan | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical Genetics | Year: 2016

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading public health problems associated with mortality and morbidity in the world. It is a complex disorder influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Atherosclerosis and elevated levels of plasma cholesterol contribute to increased risk for CAD. Other risk factors include age, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, smoking, and family history. Previous genetic studies have identified multiple polymorphisms in various genes to be associated with the risk of CAD in different populations. We aimed to examine the association of MRAS/rs9818870 and C12orf43/rs2258287 polymorphisms with the risk of CAD in a Pakistani sample. A total of 200 samples (100 cases and 100 controls) was analyzed by Allele-specific PCR. Genotypes were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. In the current study, locus C12orf43/rs2258287 was found to be associated with the risk of CAD in the studied Pakistani cohort (OR 0.18; CI 0.08–0.37; p = 0.0001) while no association was observed for MRAS/rs9818870 (OR 1.34; CI 0.65–2.76; p = 0.42). In conclusion, the rs2258287 SNP may play an important role in the progression of CAD in the Pakistani subjects. However, future studies should be done on a larger sample size to fully establish its exact role in CAD. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Chaudhary H.T.,University of Punjab | Hasnain S.,The Women University Multan
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2016

Objective: To find the bacterial and biochemical details of bags used in platelet transfusion. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital of Saudi Arabia (King Khalid Hospital, Najran) from January to June 2012, and comprised platelet bags. Samples for bacterial detection and biochemical testing of platelet bags were taken from blood bags on Day 6 of donation. Bacterial detection was done by using aerobic culture bottle, different gram stain, cultures and analytical profile index strips. Glucose, pH and protein measurements were done by Multistix dipstick method. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 352 platelet bags, 1(0.28%) showed bacterial growth on Day 6 of collection. That bacterium was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Glucose content and pH of that platelet bag was 144.14mg/dl and 5, respectively. The overall mean pH of platelet bags was 6.69±0.55 (range: 3-7). Moreover, 255(72.4%) bags showed pH of 7, 90(25.5%) of 6, 5(1.4%) of 5 and 2(0.57%) showed pH of 3 on Day 6. The overall mean protein level was 6.162±0.204g/dl (range: 5.8-6.6). Pearson bivariate correlation between platelet bag's pH and glucose content was 0.707 (p=0.001). Conclusion: Positive correlation was found between platelet bag's glucose and pH levels. © 2016, Pakistan Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Alajlani M.,University of Graz | Shiekh A.,University of Punjab | Hasnain S.,University of Punjab | Hasnain S.,The Women University Multan | Brantner A.,University of Graz
Chromatographia | Year: 2016

Bacillus subtilis strain BIA was used for the production of bioactive lipopeptides. Different extraction and purificationmethods were assayed as liquid–liquid extraction, and acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by TLC, SPE, and gel filtration. Active fractions were further purified using RP-HPLC. The molecular mass of the purified product from HPLC was determined through Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE and MALDI–TOF-MS. The results revealed that Bacillus subtilis strain BIA produced surfactin and iturin like compounds. Coproduction of surfactin and iturin like compounds by this strain is a remarkable trait for a potential biocontrol agent. This paper also includeds techniques that have been developed for the optimal and convenient extraction of bioactive lipopeptides from microbial origin. © 2016 The Author(s)


Rehman S.,University of Punjab | Rehman S.,The Women University Multan | Ghauri S.M.,King Edward Medical University | Sabri A.N.,University of Punjab
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2016

Background: Otitis media can lead to severe health consequences, and is the most common reason for antibiotic prescriptions and biofilm-mediated infections. However, the increased pattern of drug resistance in biofilm forming bacteria complicates the treatment of such infections. Objectives: This study was aimed to estimate the biofilm formation potential of the clinical isolates of otitis media, and to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics and plant extracts as alternative therapeutic agents in biofilm eradication. Materials and Methods: The ear swab samples collected from the otitis media patients visiting the Mayo Hospital in Lahore were processed to isolate the bacteria, which were characterized using morphological, biochemical, and molecular (16S rRNA ribotyping) techniques. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antibiotics and crude plant extracts were measured against the isolates. The cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation potential were determined, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with and without antibiotics. Finally, the molecular characterization of the biofilm forming proteins was done by amplifying the ica operon. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KC417303-05), Staphylococcus hemolyticus (KC417306), and Staphylococcus hominis (KC417307) were isolated from the otitis media specimens. Among the crude plant extracts, Acacia arabica showed significant antibacterial characteristics (MIC up to 13 mg/ml), while these isolates exhibited sensitivity towards ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.2 μg/mL). All of the bacterial strains had hydrophobic cellular surfaces that helped in their adherence to abiotic surfaces, leading to strong biofilm formation potential (up to 7 days). Furthermore, the icaC gene encoding polysaccharide intercellular adhesion protein was amplified from S. hemolyticus. Conclusions: The bacterial isolates exhibited strong biofilm formation potential, while the extracts of Acacia arabica significantly inhibited biofilm formation among the isolates and, therefore, could be executed in the development of cost-effective biofilm inhibitor medicines. © 2016, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.


Shabana,University of Punjab | Hasnain S.,University of Punjab | Hasnain S.,The Women University Multan
Journal of Biosciences | Year: 2016

Leptin is a protein hormone synthesized by adipocytes and is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that any change in the promoter sequence can affect the expression of the gene and hence leptin protein levels in the serum. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship of such a promoter variant of the leptin gene, G-2548A polymorphism, with obesity and its effect on various anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a Pakistani cohort consisting of 250 obese and 225 non-obese control subjects. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured by standard methods and levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDLC, LDLC, and leptin were determined. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that the LEP G-2548A polymorphism showed significant association with obesity in Pakistan. In addition, the polymorphism showed association with weight, height, BMI, WC, HDLC and serum leptin levels. The findings suggest that the leptin promoter G-2548A variant may play its part in the progression to obesity by not only affecting the body’s fat distribution but also by changing the serum leptin and HDLC levels. © 2016, Indian Academy of Sciences.


Shabana,University of Punjab | Hasnain S.,University of Punjab | Hasnain S.,The Women University Multan
Biochemical Genetics | Year: 2016

Obesity has been designated as a global epidemic by WHO as its prevalence has increased at an alarming rate in the last few decades worldwide. It is a risk factor for diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular problems, etc. The contribution of genes to the development of obesity was confirmed in late twentieth century. The concept of monogenic obesity came with the identification of leptin, and mutations in its gene, followed by the discovery of more single gene mutations. However, the recent explosion of obesity could not be explained on the basis of these rare mutations and it was after the first genome-wide association study in 2007 that made possible the identification of different effect size variants in many candidate and non-candidate genes acting in a quantitative way to add to body weight. These studies laid down the basis for polygenic cause of common forms of obesity. The role of epigenetic regulation in the modulation of energy regulation pathway was another important explanation put forward in the latter half of the past decade. Taking into account the quantitative contribution of different variants has given the concept of obesity risk scoring in order to score individuals into different risk groups so as to decide for treatment options. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | University of Punjab and The Women University Multan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical genetics | Year: 2016

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading public health problems associated with mortality and morbidity in the world. It is a complex disorder influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Atherosclerosis and elevated levels of plasma cholesterol contribute to increased risk for CAD. Other risk factors include age, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, smoking, and family history. Previous genetic studies have identified multiple polymorphisms in various genes to be associated with the risk of CAD in different populations. We aimed to examine the association of MRAS/rs9818870 and C12orf43/rs2258287 polymorphisms with the risk of CAD in a Pakistani sample. A total of 200 samples (100 cases and 100 controls) was analyzed by Allele-specific PCR. Genotypes were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. In the current study, locus C12orf43/rs2258287 was found to be associated with the risk of CAD in the studied Pakistani cohort (OR 0.18; CI 0.08-0.37; p=0.0001) while no association was observed for MRAS/rs9818870 (OR 1.34; CI 0.65-2.76; p=0.42). In conclusion, the rs2258287 SNP may play an important role in the progression of CAD in the Pakistani subjects. However, future studies should be done on a larger sample size to fully establish its exact role in CAD.


PubMed | University of Punjab and The Women University Multan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association | Year: 2016

To find the bacterial and biochemical details of bags used in platelet transfusion.This cross-sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital of Saudi Arabia (King Khalid Hospital, Najran) from January to June 2012, and comprised platelet bags. Samples for bacterial detection and biochemical testing of platelet bags were taken from blood bags on Day 6 of donation. Bacterial detection was done by using aerobic culture bottle, different gram stain, cultures and analytical profile index strips. Glucose, pH and protein measurements were done by Multistix dipstick method. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis.Of the 352 platelet bags, 1(0.28%) showed bacterial growth on Day 6 of collection. That bacterium was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Glucose content and pH of that platelet bag was 144.14mg/dl and 5, respectively. The overall mean pH of platelet bags was 6.690.55 (range: 3-7). Moreover, 255(72.4%) bags showed pH of 7, 90(25.5%) of 6, 5(1.4%) of 5 and 2(0.57%) showed pH of 3 on Day 6. The overall mean protein level was 6.1620.204g/dl (range: 5.8-6.6). Pearson bivariate correlation between platelet bags pH and glucose content was 0.707 (p=0.001).Positive correlation was found between platelet bags glucose and pH levels.

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