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Multān, Pakistan

Nouman W.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Anwar F.,Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University | Anwar F.,University of Sargodha | Gull T.,The Women University | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2016

This work compares the polyphenolics composition, antioxidant activity and contents of selected nutrients in the leaves from seven cultivars of Moringa oleifera ('Tumu', 'Sunyaw', 'Kumasi', 'Techiman', 'China', 'Pakistan Black', and 'Pakistan White') representing the variety in Pakistan. Both the non-enzymatic (DPPH free radical and linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition assays) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activities) antioxidant capacity was appraised. Regarding the nutritional value, in terms of protein and minerals contents, minor differences were recorded among cultivars. HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn analysis of the hydro-methanolic extracts of Moringa leaves revealed a wide range of phenolics, highlighting their content in kaempferol derivatives, caffeoylquinic acid, and feruloylquinic acid. The antioxidant capacity of the tested leaves was correlated with the individual phenolics composition in order to identify which compounds were responsible for this beneficial power. The varying (p<0.05) concentration of phenolics together with the antioxidant capacity of the tested leaves established 'Pakistan Black' and 'Techiman' as the most nutritive cultivar among others to be grown in the local area. Moreover, these data support the relevance of genetic variability of Moringa for determining the aptitude as a source of beneficial phenolics and nutrients, allowing to identify the optima cultivars to be grown in southern Asia. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Liaqat S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Hasnain S.,The Women University | Muzammil S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Hayat S.,Government College University at Faisalabad
EXCLI Journal | Year: 2015

Studies on polymorphism of estrogen receptor (ESR) alpha and beta genes have been mostly implicated in infertility, but the results have been controversial due to lack of comprehensive data. The present study focused on association of ESR genes with both male and female infertility. In ESRα, PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) were studied while in ESRβ gene, risk of infertility was determined for silent G/A RsaI (rs1256049) polymorphism. Total 124 subjects (74 cases and 50 controls) were part of this study having primary infertility. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed with PvuII, XbaI and RsaI to determine polymorphism. Correlation between age and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) of cases and controls was determined and no association was found between infertility and FSH hormone. Heterozygous AG genotype of XbaI polymorphism (P= 2.505e-06) and heterozygous TC genotype (P= 0.00003) in PvuII polymorphism were strongly associated with risk of infertility. In ESRβ gene, there was lack of polymorphism for RsaI in our population as all subjects were homozygous (GG). Haplotype frequencies showed that XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms are in strong linkage disequilibrium. This study shows that in our population XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of ESRα are associated with risk of infertility. © 2015, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors. All rights reserved.

Shahzad M.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Sires Campos J.,University of Murcia | Tariq N.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Tariq N.,Sardar Bahadur Khan Womens University | And 19 more authors.
Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research | Year: 2015

Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a Gs protein-coupled receptor of the melanocyte's plasma membrane, is a major determinant of skin pigmentation and phototype. Upon activation by α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, MC1R triggers the cAMP cascade to stimulate eumelanogenesis. We used whole-exome sequencing to identify causative alleles in Pakistani families with skin and hair hypopigmentation. Six MC1R mutations segregated with the phenotype in seven families, including a p.Val174del in-frame deletion and a p.Tyr298* nonsense mutation, that were analyzed for function in heterologous HEK293 cells. p.Tyr298* MC1R showed no agonist-induced signaling to the cAMP or ERK pathways, nor detectable agonist binding. Conversely, signaling was comparable for p.Val174del and wild-type in HEK cells overexpressing the proteins, but binding analysis suggested impaired cell surface expression. Flow cytometry and confocal imaging studies revealed reduced plasma membrane expression of p.Val174del and p.Tyr298*. Therefore, p.Tyr298* was a total loss-of-function (LOF) allele, while p.Val174del displayed a partial LOF attribute. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Shabana,University of Punjab | Hasnain S.,University of Punjab | Hasnain S.,The Women University
Obesity Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2016

Obesity has become a great health issue and socioeconomic burden globally in the past few decades and has afflicted Pakistan in the same way. However, there is limited research on obesity genetics in Pakistan. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons bear leptin receptor and act as anorectic targets of leptin in the brain. Leptin binding induces a series of processing events producing melanocortins which then bind to their respective signals. R236G is a mutation which disrupts such a normal processing event resulting in an overall weight gain and early onset obesity. A total of 475 subjects were genotyped to search for this mutation, and their serum traits were measured. We detected one obese subject heterozygous for R236G (0.4%) and no control subject with the mutation. We then systematically searched for previous reports of R236 substitution and combined the results of our study with the previous frequencies and found that the mutation has an overall prevalence of 0.704% in obese cases and 0.18% in non-obese controls. In conclusion, such mutations involving a prohormone processing site are very rare in nature and may not contribute a significant proportion of common forms of obesity observed currently. Such mutations may exert their effect by affecting other pathways and are more prominent in the early stages of life only. © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity.

Bajwa R.S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Batool I.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Asma M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Ali H.,The Women University | Ajmal A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences | Year: 2016

Keeping the literature available on human personality traits and their impact on human behaviors (for example decision making), this study was designed. The primary aim of the study was to explore personality traits and decision making styles among young adults. Furthermore it was also aimed to investigate if there is any relationship between above said phenomena and if there is any gender differences exists. Moreover this study was designed to examine the personality traits as a predictor of decision making styles among young adults. The sample of study comprised of 402 university students including both male (n=178, 44%) and female (n=224, 56%). After taking informed consent the data was collected through convenient sampling. Big Five Inventory (BFI) developed by John and Srivastava, 1999 and Decision Making Style Inventory by Scott and Bruce, 1995 were used as an instruments to measure personality and decision making styles respectively. The results revealed that conscientiousness leads to rational decision making style (P=0.014). Females showed higher decision making capability than males (P=0.003). Hostel resident students were more conscientious than non-hostel residents (P=0.034). Urban students were more rational in decision making than rural students (P=0.047). Students from nuclear family type showed both decision making styles i.e. rational and intuitive than of joint family system (P=0.05). It was concluded that conscientious people make rational decisions and females tend to have good decision making capability as compared to males.

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