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Green D.,Tel Aviv University | Green D.,Oxford Brookes University | Schertz M.,Paediatric Neurology Unit | Gordon A.M.,Columbia University | And 7 more authors.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2013

Aim: This study investigated the effects of a theme-based ('magic') variation of the hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy programme, in two different countries, in improving activity performance for children with hemiplegia, including those with severe movement restrictions. Method: Twenty-three children with spastic hemiplegia (13 males, 10 females; mean age 10y 7mo, range 7-15y; Manual Ability Classification System level I, two; level II, 13; level III, eight), participated in one of three, 2-week, summer camps. A within-participant experimental design was used with the Assisting Hand Assessment and Children's Hand Experience Questionnaire as primary outcome measures. Evaluations occurred immediately before the first day, on the last day, and 3 months after intervention. Two groups underwent additional assessments 2 weeks before the camp. Results: Significant intervention effects were seen on the Assisting Hand Assessment (p=0.002) and on the Children's Hand Experience Questionnaire (p<0.001), the latter maintained at follow-up. The affected hand was reported to be used in 25% of bimanual activities before the camp, progressing to 93% after camp, and decreasing to 86% at follow-up. Severity of impairment did not influence progress. Interpretation: This themed approach to intensive intervention showed positive results in bimanual use, with improvements in independence sustained at follow-up. Although children across camps and motor severity made progress, some questions remain about intensity and duration of intervention to optimize longer-term outcomes. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

Shofty B.,The Gilbert Israeli Neurofibromatosis Center | Mauda-Havakuk M.,The Gilbert Israeli Neurofibromatosis Center | Mauda-Havakuk M.,Pediatric Radiology Unit | Weizman L.,The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging | And 11 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: Optic pathway gliomas (OPG) represent 5% of pediatric brain tumors and compose a major therapeutic dilemma to the treating physicians. While chemotherapy is widely used for these tumors, our ability to predict radiological response is still lacking. In this study, we use volumetric imaging to examine in detail the long-term effect of chemotherapy on the tumor as well as its various sub-components. Procedure: The tumors of 15 patients with OPG, treated with chemotherapy, were longitudinally measured using our novel, previously described volumetric method. Patients were treated with up to five lines of chemotherapy. Sufficient follow-up imaging data, and patient's numbers, allowed for analysis of two treatment lines. Volumetric measurements of the tumors were segmented into solid-non-enhancing, solid-enhancing, and cystic components. Outcome analysis was done per specific treatment line and for the overall follow-up period. Results: An average reduction of 9.7% (±23%) in the gross-total-solid volume (GTSV) was noted following treatment with vincristine and carboplatin. The cystic component grew under therapy by an average of 12.6% (±39%). When measured over the course of the whole study period, the cystic component grew by an average of 35% (±100%) and the GTSV increased by 12% (±35%). Conclusion: Initial treatment with vincristine and carboplatin seems to have a minimal initial effect, mostly on the solid components. The cystic component in itself seems to be unaffected by chemotherapy, and contributes to the subsequent growth of the total volume. During the overall treatment period, both solid and cystic components grew regardless of combined treatment methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Blumenthal D.T.,Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center | Aisenstein O.,The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging | Ben-Horin I.,Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center | Ben Bashat D.,The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2015

Calcification is a rare phenomenon in high grade glioma (HGG). CT scans are sensitive to mineralization but used infrequently for tumor assessment in the MRI era. The presence of calcification can be overlooked on routine MRI. Calcification may reflect chronicity and natural changes in the tumor or its milieu over time and may be accelerated by certain treatments. Calcification may have clinical significance which could signal potential risk for stroke or hemorrhage related to particular therapies; or it may be a positive prognostic factor for treatment response. The true incidence and relevance of calcification in HGG and relation to therapy is unclear. During treatment of HGG patients with bevacizumab (BVZ) we observed significant tumor calcification on brain CT. We performed a retrospective review of HGG patients treated with BVZ to quantitate the incidence of calcification in this group compared to those treated with cytotoxic therapy alone. Sixty-two patients with progressive HGG were treated with BVZ and a cytotoxic agent. Among 19 patients treated for 6+ months, 12 had a CT scan performed. We observed an unexpected phenomenon of calcification in the CT scans of several patients. We were also able to comparatively quantitate the incidence of calcification in a control group of primary glioblastoma (GB) patients not exposed to BVZ therapy. The incidence of calcification in the general GB population is increased with longer survival. The phenomenon is increased with anti-angiogenic therapy for brain tumors. Calcification may have significance as a predictor for treatment response. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Artzi M.,The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging | Artzi M.,Tel Aviv University | Liberman G.,The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging | Liberman G.,Weizmann Institute of Science | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2016

Differentiation between treatment-related changes and progressive disease (PD) remains a major clinical challenge in the follow-up of patients with high grade brain tumors. The aim of this study was to differentiate between treatment-related changes and PD using dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI. Twenty patients were scanned using conventional, DCE-MRI and MR spectroscopy (total of 44 MR scans). The enhanced lesion area was extracted using independent components analysis of the DCE data. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from the DCE data based on the Extended-Tofts-Model. Voxel based classification for treatment-related changes versus PD was performed in a patient-wise leave-one-out manner, using a support vector machine classifier. DCE parameters, Ktrans, ve, kep and vp, significantly differentiated between the tissue types. Classification results were validated using spectroscopy data showing significantly higher choline/creatine values in the extracted PD component compared to areas with treatment-related changes and normal appearing white matter, and high correlation between choline/creatine values and the percentage of the identified PD component within the lesion area (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). On the training data the sensitivity and specificity were 98 and 97 %, respectively, for the treatment-related changes component and 97 and 98 % for the PD component. This study proposes a methodology based on DCE-MRI to differentiate lesion areas into treatment-related changes versus PD, prospectively in each scan. Results may have major clinical importance for pre-operative planning, guidance for targeting biopsy, and early prediction of radiological outcomes in patients with high grade brain tumors. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Weinstein M.,The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging | Weinstein M.,Bar - Ilan University | Marom R.,Lis Maternity Hospital | Marom R.,Tel Aviv University | And 13 more authors.
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2014

The neonatal period is considered to be essential for neurodevelopment and wellbeing throughout the life span, yet little is known about brain-behavior relationships in the neonatal period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between neonatal sensory-motor regulation and white-matter (WM) integrity of major fiber tracts in the neonatal period. We hypothesized that WM integrity of sensory-motor systems would predict neurobehavioral maturation during the first month of life. Forty-nine premature neonates underwent magnetic-resonance-imaging at term. Diffusion-tensor-imaging analysis was performed in major WM tracts along with repeated neonatal neurobehavioral evaluations assessing sensory reactivity and motor regulation.Difficulties in one or more behavioral sub-category, mostly in auditory and visual attention, hypotonicity and jitteriness, were documented in 78.3% infants at term. Sixty-six percent of infants experienced difficulties, mostly in auditory attention, head-neck control, hypotonicity and motor asymmetry, at 44 weeks.Attention difficulties were associated with reduced integrity of cerebral and superior cerebellar peduncles; while tonicity was associated with reduced integrity of the corpus-callosum and inferior-posterior tracts. Overall, results showed that early maturing tracts were related with the degree of typicality of sensory reactivity status while late maturing tracts were related with the degree of typicality of tonic regulation. WM integrity and maturation factors explained 40.2% of the variance in neurobehavior at 44 weeks.This study suggests that in preterm neonates, deviant sensory-motor reactivity can be detected very early in development in manners that are related to lower integrity/maturational level of early and late maturing fiber tracts. © 2014 The Authors.

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